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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01038
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6326
  • HMDBP04437
Name Cytochrome P450 2C19
Synonyms
  1. (R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
  2. (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
  3. (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase
  4. CYPIIC17
  5. CYPIIC19
  6. Cytochrome P450-11A
  7. Cytochrome P450-254C
  8. Mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase
Gene Name CYP2C19
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific Function Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Pathways
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Carbamazepine Metabolism Pathway
  • Chemical carcinogenesis
  • Citalopram Metabolism Pathway
  • Citalopram Pathway
  • Clomipramine Metabolism Pathway
  • Clopidogrel Metabolism Pathway
  • Clopidogrel Pathway
  • Cyclophosphamide Metabolism Pathway
  • Cyclophosphamide Pathway
  • Doxepin Metabolism Pathway
  • Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
  • Fluoxetine Metabolism Pathway
  • Fluoxetine Pathway
  • Ibuprofen Metabolism Pathway
  • Ibuprofen Pathway
  • Imipramine Metabolism Pathway
  • Imipramine Pathway
  • Linoleic acid metabolism
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
  • Methadone Metabolism Pathway
  • Methadone Pathway
  • Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Pathway
  • Retinol metabolism
  • Serotonergic synapse
  • Venlafaxine Metabolism Pathway
Reactions
(+)-Limonene + NADPH + Oxygen → (+)-trans-Carveol + NADP + Water details
D-Limonene + NADPH + Oxygen → (-)-trans-Carveol + NADP + Water details
D-Limonene + NADPH + Oxygen → (S)-p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol + NADP + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
exogenous drug catabolic process
heterocycle metabolic process
monoterpenoid metabolic process
steroid metabolic process
xenobiotic metabolic process
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
electron carrier activity
iron ion binding
monooxygenase activity
heme binding
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
electron carrier activity
oxygen binding
iron ion binding
steroid hydroxylase activity
(R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity
(S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity
heme binding
(S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase activity
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Peripheral membrane protein
  2. Peripheral membrane protein
  3. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  4. Microsome membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 10
Locus 10q24
SNPs CYP2C19
Gene Sequence
>1473 bp
ATGGATCCTTTTGTGGTCCTTGTGCTCTGTCTCTCATGTTTGCTTCTCCTTTCAATCTGG
AGACAGAGCTCTGGGAGAGGAAAACTCCCTCCTGGCCCCACTCCTCTCCCAGTGATTGGA
AATATCCTACAGATAGATATTAAGGATGTCAGCAAATCCTTAACCAATCTCTCAAAAATC
TATGGCCCTGTGTTCACTCTGTATTTTGGCCTGGAACGCATGGTGGTGCTGCATGGATAT
GAAGTGGTGAAGGAAGCCCTGATTGATCTTGGAGAGGAGTTTTCTGGAAGAGGCCATTTC
CCACTGGCTGAAAGAGCTAACAGAGGATTTGGAATCGTTTTCAGCAATGGAAAGAGATGG
AAGGAGATCCGGCGTTTCTCCCTCATGACGCTGCGGAATTTTGGGATGGGGAAGAGGAGC
ATTGAGGACCGTGTTCAAGAGGAAGCCCGCTGCCTTGTGGAGGAGTTGAGAAAAACCAAG
GCTTCACCCTGTGATCCCACTTTCATCCTGGGCTGTGCTCCCTGCAATGTGATCTGCTCC
ATTATTTTCCAGAAACGTTTCGATTATAAAGATCAGCAATTTCTTAACTTGATGGAAAAA
TTGAATGAAAACATCAGGATTGTAAGCACCCCCTGGATCCAGATATGCAATAATTTTCCC
ACTATCATTGATTATTTCCCGGGAACCCATAACAAATTACTTAAAAACCTTGCTTTTATG
GAAAGTGATATTTTGGAGAAAGTAAAAGAACACCAAGAATCGATGGACATCAACAACCCT
CGGGACTTTATTGATTGCTTCCTGATCAAAATGGAGAAGGAAAAGCAAAACCAACAGTCT
GAATTCACTATTGAAAACTTGGTAATCACTGCAGCTGACTTACTTGGAGCTGGGACAGAG
ACAACAAGCACAACCCTGAGATATGCTCTCCTTCTCCTGCTGAAGCACCCAGAGGTCACA
GCTAAAGTCCAGGAAGAGATTGAACGTGTCATTGGCAGAAACCGGAGCCCCTGCATGCAG
GACAGGGGCCACATGCCCTACACAGATGCTGTGGTGCACGAGGTCCAGAGATACATCGAC
CTCATCCCCACCAGCCTGCCCCATGCAGTGACCTGTGACGTTAAATTCAGAAACTACCTC
ATTCCCAAGGGCACAACCATATTAACTTCCCTCACTTCTGTGCTACATGACAACAAAGAA
TTTCCCAACCCAGAGATGTTTGACCCTCGTCACTTTCTGGATGAAGGTGGAAATTTTAAG
AAAAGTAACTACTTCATGCCTTTCTCAGCAGGAAAACGGATTTGTGTGGGAGAGGGCCTG
GCCCGCATGGAGCTGTTTTTATTCCTGACCTTCATTTTACAGAACTTTAACCTGAAATCT
CTGATTGACCCAAAGGACCTTGACACAACTCCTGTTGTCAATGGATTTGCTTCTGTCCCG
CCCTTCTATCAGCTGTGCTTCATTCCTGTCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 490
Molecular Weight 55944.565
Theoretical pI 7.383
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Cytochrome P450 2C19
MDPFVVLVLCLSCLLLLSIWRQSSGRGKLPPGPTPLPVIGNILQIDIKDVSKSLTNLSKI
YGPVFTLYFGLERMVVLHGYEVVKEALIDLGEEFSGRGHFPLAERANRGFGIVFSNGKRW
KEIRRFSLMTLRNFGMGKRSIEDRVQEEARCLVEELRKTKASPCDPTFILGCAPCNVICS
IIFQKRFDYKDQQFLNLMEKLNENIRIVSTPWIQICNNFPTIIDYFPGTHNKLLKNLAFM
ESDILEKVKEHQESMDINNPRDFIDCFLIKMEKEKQNQQSEFTIENLVITAADLLGAGTE
TTSTTLRYALLLLLKHPEVTAKVQEEIERVVGRNRSPCMQDRGHMPYTDAVVHEVQRYID
LIPTSLPHAVTCDVKFRNYLIPKGTTILTSLTSVLHDNKEFPNPEMFDPRHFLDEGGNFK
KSNYFMPFSAGKRICVGEGLARMELFLFLTFILQNFNLKSLIDPKDLDTTPVVNGFASVP
PFYQLCFIPV
GenBank ID Protein 181344
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P33261
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CP2CJ_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M61854
GeneCard ID CYP2C19
GenAtlas ID CYP2C19
HGNC ID HGNC:2621
References
General References
  1. Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR, Rogers J: The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):375-81. [PubMed:15164054 ]
  2. Solus JF, Arietta BJ, Harris JR, Sexton DP, Steward JQ, McMunn C, Ihrie P, Mehall JM, Edwards TL, Dawson EP: Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population. Pharmacogenomics. 2004 Oct;5(7):895-931. [PubMed:15469410 ]
  3. Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T: Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 May;30(5):602-7. [PubMed:11950794 ]
  4. Romkes M, Faletto MB, Blaisdell JA, Raucy JL, Goldstein JA: Cloning and expression of complementary DNAs for multiple members of the human cytochrome P450IIC subfamily. Biochemistry. 1991 Apr 2;30(13):3247-55. [PubMed:2009263 ]
  5. Romkes M, Faletto MB, Blaisdell JA, Raucy JL, Goldstein JA: Cloning and expression of complementary DNAs for multiple members of the human cytochrome PH50IIC subfamily. Biochemistry. 1993 Feb 9;32(5):1390. [PubMed:8095407 ]
  6. Wrighton SA, Stevens JC, Becker GW, VandenBranden M: Isolation and characterization of human liver cytochrome P450 2C19: correlation between 2C19 and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Oct;306(1):240-5. [PubMed:8215410 ]
  7. de Morais SM, Wilkinson GR, Blaisdell J, Nakamura K, Meyer UA, Goldstein JA: The major genetic defect responsible for the polymorphism of S-mephenytoin metabolism in humans. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 3;269(22):15419-22. [PubMed:8195181 ]
  8. De Morais SM, Wilkinson GR, Blaisdell J, Meyer UA, Nakamura K, Goldstein JA: Identification of a new genetic defect responsible for the polymorphism of (S)-mephenytoin metabolism in Japanese. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Oct;46(4):594-8. [PubMed:7969038 ]
  9. Xiao ZS, Goldstein JA, Xie HG, Blaisdell J, Wang W, Jiang CH, Yan FX, He N, Huang SL, Xu ZH, Zhou HH: Differences in the incidence of the CYP2C19 polymorphism affecting the S-mephenytoin phenotype in Chinese Han and Bai populations and identification of a new rare CYP2C19 mutant allele. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):604-9. [PubMed:9103550 ]
  10. Ibeanu GC, Goldstein JA, Meyer U, Benhamou S, Bouchardy C, Dayer P, Ghanayem BI, Blaisdell J: Identification of new human CYP2C19 alleles (CYP2C19*6 and CYP2C19*2B) in a Caucasian poor metabolizer of mephenytoin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1490-5. [PubMed:9732415 ]
  11. Ibeanu GC, Blaisdell J, Ghanayem BI, Beyeler C, Benhamou S, Bouchardy C, Wilkinson GR, Dayer P, Daly AK, Goldstein JA: An additional defective allele, CYP2C19*5, contributes to the S-mephenytoin poor metabolizer phenotype in Caucasians. Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Apr;8(2):129-35. [PubMed:10022751 ]
  12. Ibeanu GC, Blaisdell J, Ferguson RJ, Ghanayem BI, Brosen K, Benhamou S, Bouchardy C, Wilkinson GR, Dayer P, Goldstein JA: A novel transversion in the intron 5 donor splice junction of CYP2C19 and a sequence polymorphism in exon 3 contribute to the poor metabolizer phenotype for the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):635-40. [PubMed:10411572 ]
  13. Blaisdell J, Mohrenweiser H, Jackson J, Ferguson S, Coulter S, Chanas B, Xi T, Ghanayem B, Goldstein JA: Identification and functional characterization of new potentially defective alleles of human CYP2C19. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Dec;12(9):703-11. [PubMed:12464799 ]
  14. Morita J, Kobayashi K, Wanibuchi A, Kimura M, Irie S, Ishizaki T, Chiba K: A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the CYP2C19 gene in a Japanese subject with lowered capacity of mephobarbital 4'-hydroxylation. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004 Jun;19(3):236-8. [PubMed:15499191 ]
  15. Fukushima-Uesaka H, Saito Y, Maekawa K, Ozawa S, Hasegawa R, Kajio H, Kuzuya N, Yasuda K, Kawamoto M, Kamatani N, Suzuki K, Yanagawa T, Tohkin M, Sawada J: Genetic variations and haplotypes of CYP2C19 in a Japanese population. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Aug;20(4):300-7. [PubMed:16141610 ]