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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01526
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6822
Name Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret
Synonyms
  1. Cadherin family member 12
  2. Proto-oncogene c-Ret
Gene Name RET
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific Function Probable receptor with tyrosine-protein kinase activity; important for development
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Component
membrane
cell part
Function
protein tyrosine kinase activity
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups
kinase activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
adenyl ribonucleotide binding
atp binding
protein binding
protein kinase activity
calcium ion binding
Process
phosphorus metabolic process
phosphate metabolic process
cell adhesion
metabolic process
cellular process
cellular metabolic process
cell-cell adhesion
homophilic cell adhesion
protein amino acid phosphorylation
phosphorylation
Cellular Location
  1. Membrane
  2. Single-pass type I membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 10q11.2
SNPs RET
Gene Sequence
>3345 bp
ATGGCGAAGGCGACGTCCGGTGCCGCGGGGCTGCGTCTGCTGTTGCTGCTGCTGCTGCCG
CTGCTAGGCAAAGTGGCATTGGGCCTCTACTTCTCGAGGGATGCTTACTGGGAGAAGCTG
TATGTGGACCAGGCGGCCGGCACGCCCTTGCTGTACGTCCATGCCCTGCGGGACGCCCCT
GAGGAGGTGCCCAGCTTCCGCCTGGGCCAGCATCTCTACGGCACGTACCGCACACGGCTG
CATGAGAACAACTGGATCTGCATCCAGGAGGACACCGGCCTCCTCTACCTTAACCGGAGC
CTGGACCATAGCTCCTGGGAGAAGCTCAGTGTCCGCAACCGCGGCTTTCCCCTGCTCACC
GTCTACCTCAAGGTCTTCCTGTCACCCACATCCCTTCGTGAGGGCGAGTGCCAGTGGCCA
GGCTGTGCCCGCGTATACTTCTCCTTCTTCAACACCTCCTTTCCAGCCTGCAGCTCCCTC
AAGCCCCGGGAGCTCTGCTTCCCAGAGACAAGGCCCTCCTTCCGCATTCGGGAGAACCGA
CCCCCAGGCACCTTCCACCAGTTCCGCCTGCTGCCTGTGCAGTTCTTGTGCCCCAACATC
AGCGTGGCCTACAGGCTCCTGGAGGGTGAGGGTCTGCCCTTCCGCTGCGCCCCGGACAGC
CTGGAGGTGAGCACGCGCTGGGCCCTGGACCGCGAGCAGCGGGAGAAGTACGAGCTGGTG
GCCGTGTGCACCGTGCACGCCGGCGCGCGCGAGGAGGTGGTGATGGTGCCCTTCCCGGTG
ACCGTGTACGACGAGGACGACTCGGCGCCCACCTTCCCCGCGGGCGTCGACACCGCCAGC
GCCGTGGTGGAGTTCAAGCGGAAGGAGGACACCGTGGTGGCCACGCTGCGTGTCTTCGAT
GCAGACGTGGTACCTGCATCAGGGGAGCTGGTGAGGCGGTACACAAGCACGCTGCTCCCC
GGGGACACCTGGGCCCAGCAGACCTTCCGGGTGGAACACTGGCCCAACGAGACCTCGGTC
CAGGCCAACGGCAGCTTCGTGCGGGCGACCGTACATGACTATAGGCTGGTTCTCAACCGG
AACCTCTCCATCTCGGAGAACCGCACCATGCAGCTGGCGGTGCTGGTCAATGACTCAGAC
TTCCAGGGCCCAGGAGCGGGCGTCCTCTTGCTCCACTTCAACGTGTCGGTGCTGCCGGTC
AGCCTGCACCTGCCCAGTACCTACTCCCTCTCCGTGAGCAGGAGGGCTCGCCGATTTGCC
CAGATCGGGAAAGTCTGTGTGGAAAACTGCCAGGCATTCAGTGGCATCAACGTCCAGTAC
AAGCTGCATTCCTCTGGTGCCAACTGCAGCACGCTAGGGGTGGTCACCTCAGCCGAGGAC
ACCTCGGGGATCCTGTTTGTGAATGACACCAAGGCCCTGCGGCGGCCCAAGTGTGCCGAA
CTTCACTACATGGTGGTGGCCACCGACCAGCAGACCTCTAGGCAGGCCCAGGCCCAGCTG
CTTGTAACAGTGGAGGGGTCATATGTGGCCGAGGAGGCGGGCTGCCCCCTGTCCTGTGCA
GTCAGCAAGAGACGGCTGGAGTGTGAGGAGTGTGGCGGCCTGGGCTCCCCAACAGGCAGG
TGTGAGTGGAGGCAAGGAGATGGCAAAGGGATCACCAGGAACTTCTCCACCTGCTCTCCC
AGCACCAAGACCTGCCCCGACGGCCACTGCGATGTTGTGGAGACCCAAGACATCAACATT
TGCCCTCAGGACTGCCTCCGGGGCAGCATTGTTGGGGGACACGAGCCTGGGGAGCCCCGG
GGGATTAAAGCTGGCTATGGCACCTGCAACTGCTTCCCTGAGGAGGAGAAGTGCTTCTGC
GAGCCCGAAGACATCCAGGATCCACTGTGCGACGAGCTGTGCCGCACGGTGATCGCAGCC
GCTGTCCTCTTCTCCTTCATCGTCTCGGTGCTGCTGTCTGCCTTCTGCATCCACTGCTAC
CACAAGTTTGCCCACAAGCCACCCATCTCCTCAGCTGAGATGACCTTCCGGAGGCCCGCC
CAGGCCTTCCCGGTCAGCTACTCCTCTTCCGGTGCCCGCCGGCCCTCGCTGGACTCCATG
GAGAACCAGGTCTCCGTGGATGCCTTCAAGATCCTGGAGGATCCAAAGTGGGAATTCCCT
CGGAAGAACTTGGTTCTTGGAAAAACTCTAGGAGAAGGCGAATTTGGAAAAGTGGTCAAG
GCAACGGCCTTCCATCTGAAAGGCAGAGCAGGGTACACCACGGTGGCCGTGAAGATGCTG
AAAGAGAACGCCTCCCCGAGTGAGCTTCGAGACCTGCTGTCAGAGTTCAACGTCCTGAAG
CAGGTCAACCACCCACATGTCATCAAATTGTATGGGGCCTGCAGCCAGGATGGCCCGCTC
CTCCTCATCGTGGAGTACGCCAAATACGGCTCCCTGCGGGGCTTCCTCCGCGAGAGCCGC
AAAGTGGGGCCTGGCTACCTGGGCAGTGGAGGCAGCCGCAACTCCAGCTCCCTGGACCAC
CCGGATGAGCGGGCCCTCACCATGGGCGACCTCATCTCATTTGCCTGGCAGATCTCACAG
GGGATGCAGTATCTGGCCGAGATGAAGCTCGTTCATCGGGACTTGGCAGCCAGAAACATC
CTGGTAGCTGAGGGGCGGAAGATGAAGATTTCGGATTTCGGCTTGTCCCGAGATGTTTAT
GAAGAGGATTCCTACGTGAAGAGGAGCCAGGGTCGGATTCCAGTTAAATGGATGGCAATT
GAATCCCTTTTTGATCATATCTACACCACGCAAAGTGATGTATGGTCTTTTGGTGTCCTG
CTGTGGGAGATCGTGACCCTAGGGGGAAACCCCTATCCTGGGATTCCTCCTGAGCGGCTC
TTCAACCTTCTGAAGACCGGCCACCGGATGGAGAGGCCAGACAACTGCAGCGAGGAGATG
TACCGCCTGATGCTGCAATGCTGGAAGCAGGAGCCGGACAAAAGGCCGGTGTTTGCGGAC
ATCAGCAAAGACCTGGAGAAGATGATGGTTAAGAGGAGAGACTACTTGGACCTTGCGGCG
TCCACTCCATCTGACTCCCTGATTTATGACGACGGCCTCTCAGAGGAGGAGACACCGCTG
GTGGACTGTAATAATGCCCCCCTCCCTCGAGCCCTCCCTTCCACATGGATTGAAAACAAA
CTCTATGGCATGTCAGACCCGAACTGGCCTGGAGAGAGTCCTGTACCACTCACGAGAGCT
GATGGCACTAACACTGGGTTTCCAAGATATCCAAATGATAGTGTATATGCTAACTGGATG
CTTTCACCCTCAGCGGCAAAATTAATGGACACGTTTGATAGTTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 1114
Molecular Weight 124317.5
Theoretical pI 6.57
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-28
Transmembrane Regions
  • 636-657
Protein Sequence
>Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret
MAKATSGAAGLRLLLLLLLPLLGKVALGLYFSRDAYWEKLYVDQAAGTPLLYVHALRDAP
EEVPSFRLGQHLYGTYRTRLHENNWICIQEDTGLLYLNRSLDHSSWEKLSVRNRGFPLLT
VYLKVFLSPTSLREGECQWPGCARVYFSFFNTSFPACSSLKPRELCFPETRPSFRIRENR
PPGTFHQFRLLPVQFLCPNISVAYRLLEGEGLPFRCAPDSLEVSTRWALDREQREKYELV
AVCTVHAGAREEVVMVPFPVTVYDEDDSAPTFPAGVDTASAVVEFKRKEDTVVATLRVFD
ADVVPASGELVRRYTSTLLPGDTWAQQTFRVEHWPNETSVQANGSFVRATVHDYRLVLNR
NLSISENRTMQLAVLVNDSDFQGPGAGVLLLHFNVSVLPVSLHLPSTYSLSVSRRARRFA
QIGKVCVENCQAFSGINVQYKLHSSGANCSTLGVVTSAEDTSGILFVNDTKALRRPKCAE
LHYMVVATDQQTSRQAQAQLLVTVEGSYVAEEAGCPLSCAVSKRRLECEECGGLGSPTGR
CEWRQGDGKGITRNFSTCSPSTKTCPDGHCDVVETQDINICPQDCLRGSIVGGHEPGEPR
GIKAGYGTCNCFPEEEKCFCEPEDIQDPLCDELCRTVIAAAVLFSFIVSVLLSAFCIHCY
HKFAHKPPISSAEMTFRRPAQAFPVSYSSSGARRPSLDSMENQVSVDAFKILEDPKWEFP
RKNLVLGKTLGEGEFGKVVKATAFHLKGRAGYTTVAVKMLKENASPSELRDLLSEFNVLK
QVNHPHVIKLYGACSQDGPLLLIVEYAKYGSLRGFLRESRKVGPGYLGSGGSRNSSSLDH
PDERALTMGDLISFAWQISQGMQYLAEMKLVHRDLAARNILVAEGRKMKISDFGLSRDVY
EEDSYVKRSQGRIPVKWMAIESLFDHIYTTQSDVWSFGVLLWEIVTLGGNPYPGIPPERL
FNLLKTGHRMERPDNCSEEMYRLMLQCWKQEPDKRPVFADISKDLEKMMVKRRDYLDLAA
STPSDSLIYDDGLSEEETPLVDCNNAPLPRALPSTWIENKLYGMSDPNWPGESPVPLTRA
DGTNTGFPRYPNDSVYANWMLSPSAAKLMDTFDS
GenBank ID Protein 10862703
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P07949
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name RET_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID NM_020975.4
GeneCard ID RET
GenAtlas ID RET
HGNC ID HGNC:9967
References
General References
  1. Oppermann FS, Gnad F, Olsen JV, Hornberger R, Greff Z, Keri G, Mann M, Daub H: Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009 Jul;8(7):1751-64. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M800588-MCP200. Epub 2009 Apr 15. [PubMed:19369195 ]
  2. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959974 ]
  3. Neumann HP, Bausch B, McWhinney SR, Bender BU, Gimm O, Franke G, Schipper J, Klisch J, Altehoefer C, Zerres K, Januszewicz A, Eng C, Smith WM, Munk R, Manz T, Glaesker S, Apel TW, Treier M, Reineke M, Walz MK, Hoang-Vu C, Brauckhoff M, Klein-Franke A, Klose P, Schmidt H, Maier-Woelfle M, Peczkowska M, Szmigielski C, Eng C: Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med. 2002 May 9;346(19):1459-66. [PubMed:12000816 ]
  4. Klugbauer S, Rabes HM: The transcription coactivator HTIF1 and a related protein are fused to the RET receptor tyrosine kinase in childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas. Oncogene. 1999 Jul 29;18(30):4388-93. [PubMed:10439047 ]
  5. Greenman C, Stephens P, Smith R, Dalgliesh GL, Hunter C, Bignell G, Davies H, Teague J, Butler A, Stevens C, Edkins S, O'Meara S, Vastrik I, Schmidt EE, Avis T, Barthorpe S, Bhamra G, Buck G, Choudhury B, Clements J, Cole J, Dicks E, Forbes S, Gray K, Halliday K, Harrison R, Hills K, Hinton J, Jenkinson A, Jones D, Menzies A, Mironenko T, Perry J, Raine K, Richardson D, Shepherd R, Small A, Tofts C, Varian J, Webb T, West S, Widaa S, Yates A, Cahill DP, Louis DN, Goldstraw P, Nicholson AG, Brasseur F, Looijenga L, Weber BL, Chiew YE, DeFazio A, Greaves MF, Green AR, Campbell P, Birney E, Easton DF, Chenevix-Trench G, Tan MH, Khoo SK, Teh BT, Yuen ST, Leung SY, Wooster R, Futreal PA, Stratton MR: Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes. Nature. 2007 Mar 8;446(7132):153-8. [PubMed:17344846 ]
  6. Takahashi M, Buma Y, Hiai H: Isolation of ret proto-oncogene cDNA with an amino-terminal signal sequence. Oncogene. 1989 Jun;4(6):805-6. [PubMed:2660074 ]
  7. Takahashi M, Buma Y, Iwamoto T, Inaguma Y, Ikeda H, Hiai H: Cloning and expression of the ret proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase with two potential transmembrane domains. Oncogene. 1988 Nov;3(5):571-8. [PubMed:3078962 ]
  8. Takahashi M, Cooper GM: ret transforming gene encodes a fusion protein homologous to tyrosine kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Apr;7(4):1378-85. [PubMed:3037315 ]
  9. Ishizaka Y, Ochiai M, Tahira T, Sugimura T, Nagao M: Activation of the ret-II oncogene without a sequence encoding a transmembrane domain and transforming activity of two ret-II oncogene products differing in carboxy-termini due to alternative splicing. Oncogene. 1989 Jun;4(6):789-94. [PubMed:2734021 ]
  10. Grieco M, Santoro M, Berlingieri MT, Melillo RM, Donghi R, Bongarzone I, Pierotti MA, Della Porta G, Fusco A, Vecchio G: PTC is a novel rearranged form of the ret proto-oncogene and is frequently detected in vivo in human thyroid papillary carcinomas. Cell. 1990 Feb 23;60(4):557-63. [PubMed:2406025 ]
  11. Corvi R, Berger N, Balczon R, Romeo G: RET/PCM-1: a novel fusion gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene. 2000 Aug 31;19(37):4236-42. [PubMed:10980597 ]
  12. Salvatore D, Barone MV, Salvatore G, Melillo RM, Chiappetta G, Mineo A, Fenzi G, Vecchio G, Fusco A, Santoro M: Tyrosines 1015 and 1062 are in vivo autophosphorylation sites in ret and ret-derived oncoproteins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Oct;85(10):3898-907. [PubMed:11061555 ]
  13. Kawamoto Y, Takeda K, Okuno Y, Yamakawa Y, Ito Y, Taguchi R, Kato M, Suzuki H, Takahashi M, Nakashima I: Identification of RET autophosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 2;279(14):14213-24. Epub 2004 Jan 6. [PubMed:14711813 ]
  14. Saenko V, Rogounovitch T, Shimizu-Yoshida Y, Abrosimov A, Lushnikov E, Roumiantsev P, Matsumoto N, Nakashima M, Meirmanov S, Ohtsuru A, Namba H, Tsyb A, Yamashita S: Novel tumorigenic rearrangement, Delta rfp/ret, in a papillary thyroid carcinoma from externally irradiated patient. Mutat Res. 2003 Jun 19;527(1-2):81-90. [PubMed:12787916 ]
  15. Knowles PP, Murray-Rust J, Kjaer S, Scott RP, Hanrahan S, Santoro M, Ibanez CF, McDonald NQ: Structure and chemical inhibition of the RET tyrosine kinase domain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 3;281(44):33577-87. Epub 2006 Aug 23. [PubMed:16928683 ]
  16. Hofstra RM, Osinga J, Buys CH: Mutations in Hirschsprung disease: when does a mutation contribute to the phenotype. Eur J Hum Genet. 1997 Jul-Aug;5(4):180-5. [PubMed:9359036 ]
  17. Eng C, Mulligan LM: Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes, related sporadic tumours, and hirschsprung disease. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(2):97-109. [PubMed:9067749 ]
  18. Donis-Keller H, Dou S, Chi D, Carlson KM, Toshima K, Lairmore TC, Howe JR, Moley JF, Goodfellow P, Wells SA Jr: Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are associated with MEN 2A and FMTC. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jul;2(7):851-6. [PubMed:8103403 ]
  19. Mulligan LM, Kwok JB, Healey CS, Elsdon MJ, Eng C, Gardner E, Love DR, Mole SE, Moore JK, Papi L, et al.: Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Nature. 1993 Jun 3;363(6428):458-60. [PubMed:8099202 ]
  20. Yin L, Barone V, Seri M, Bolino A, Bocciardi R, Ceccherini I, Pasini B, Tocco T, Lerone M, Cywes S, et al.: Heterogeneity and low detection rate of RET mutations in Hirschsprung disease. Eur J Hum Genet. 1994;2(4):272-80. [PubMed:7704557 ]
  21. Eng C, Smith DP, Mulligan LM, Nagai MA, Healey CS, Ponder MA, Gardner E, Scheumann GF, Jackson CE, Tunnacliffe A, et al.: Point mutation within the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and related sporadic tumours. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Feb;3(2):237-41. [PubMed:7911697 ]
  22. Xue F, Yu H, Maurer LH, Memoli VA, Nutile-McMenemy N, Schuster MK, Bowden DW, Mao J, Noll WW: Germline RET mutations in MEN 2A and FMTC and their detection by simple DNA diagnostic tests. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Apr;3(4):635-8. [PubMed:7915165 ]
  23. Blaugrund JE, Johns MM Jr, Eby YJ, Ball DW, Baylin SB, Hruban RH, Sidransky D: RET proto-oncogene mutations in inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Oct;3(10):1895-7. [PubMed:7849720 ]
  24. Schuffenecker I, Billaud M, Calender A, Chambe B, Ginet N, Calmettes C, Modigliani E, Lenoir GM: RET proto-oncogene mutations in French MEN 2A and FMTC families. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Nov;3(11):1939-43. [PubMed:7874109 ]
  25. Mulligan LM, Eng C, Attie T, Lyonnet S, Marsh DJ, Hyland VJ, Robinson BG, Frilling A, Verellen-Dumoulin C, Safar A, et al.: Diverse phenotypes associated with exon 10 mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Dec;3(12):2163-7. [PubMed:7881414 ]
  26. Hofstra RM, Landsvater RM, Ceccherini I, Stulp RP, Stelwagen T, Luo Y, Pasini B, Hoppener JW, van Amstel HK, Romeo G, et al.: A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Nature. 1994 Jan 27;367(6461):375-6. [PubMed:7906866 ]
  27. Romeo G, Ronchetto P, Luo Y, Barone V, Seri M, Ceccherini I, Pasini B, Bocciardi R, Lerone M, Kaariainen H, et al.: Point mutations affecting the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease. Nature. 1994 Jan 27;367(6461):377-8. [PubMed:8114938 ]
  28. Edery P, Lyonnet S, Mulligan LM, Pelet A, Dow E, Abel L, Holder S, Nihoul-Fekete C, Ponder BA, Munnich A: Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease. Nature. 1994 Jan 27;367(6461):378-80. [PubMed:8114939 ]
  29. Carlson KM, Dou S, Chi D, Scavarda N, Toshima K, Jackson CE, Wells SA Jr, Goodfellow PJ, Donis-Keller H: Single missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain of the RET protooncogene is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 15;91(4):1579-83. [PubMed:7906417 ]
  30. Komminoth P, Kunz EK, Matias-Guiu X, Hiort O, Christiansen G, Colomer A, Roth J, Heitz PU: Analysis of RET protooncogene point mutations distinguishes heritable from nonheritable medullary thyroid carcinomas. Cancer. 1995 Aug 1;76(3):479-89. [PubMed:8625130 ]
  31. Takiguchi-Shirahama S, Koyama K, Miyauchi A, Wakasugi T, Oishi S, Takami H, Hikiji K, Nakamura Y: Germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in eight Japanese patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A). Hum Genet. 1995 Feb;95(2):187-90. [PubMed:7860065 ]
  32. Angrist M, Bolk S, Thiel B, Puffenberger EG, Hofstra RM, Buys CH, Cass DT, Chakravarti A: Mutation analysis of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase in Hirschsprung disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 May;4(5):821-30. [PubMed:7633441 ]
  33. Attie T, Pelet A, Edery P, Eng C, Mulligan LM, Amiel J, Boutrand L, Beldjord C, Nihoul-Fekete C, Munnich A, et al.: Diversity of RET proto-oncogene mutations in familial and sporadic Hirschsprung disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Aug;4(8):1381-6. [PubMed:7581377 ]
  34. Kitamura Y, Scavarda N, Wells SA Jr, Jackson CE, Goodfellow PJ: Two maternally derived missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET protooncogene in a patient with de novo MEN 2B. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Oct;4(10):1987-8. [PubMed:8595427 ]
  35. Eng C, Smith DP, Mulligan LM, Healey CS, Zvelebil MJ, Stonehouse TJ, Ponder MA, Jackson CE, Waterfield MD, Ponder BA: A novel point mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma and in a family with FMTC. Oncogene. 1995 Feb 2;10(3):509-13. [PubMed:7845675 ]
  36. Bolino A, Schuffenecker I, Luo Y, Seri M, Silengo M, Tocco T, Chabrier G, Houdent C, Murat A, Schlumberger M, et al.: RET mutations in exons 13 and 14 of FMTC patients. Oncogene. 1995 Jun 15;10(12):2415-9. [PubMed:7784092 ]
  37. Yin L, Seri M, Barone V, Tocco T, Scaranari M, Romeo G: Prevalence and parental origin of de novo RET mutations in Hirschsprung's disease. Eur J Hum Genet. 1996;4(6):356-8. [PubMed:9043870 ]
  38. Landsvater RM, Jansen RP, Hofstra RM, Buys CH, Lips CJ, Ploos van Amstel HK: Mutation analysis of the RET proto-oncogene in Dutch families with MEN 2A, MEN 2B and FMTC: two novel mutations and one de novo mutation for MEN 2A. Hum Genet. 1996 Jan;97(1):11-4. [PubMed:8557249 ]
  39. Kambouris M, Jackson CE, Feldman GL: Diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] 2A, 2B and familial medullary thyroid cancer [FMTC] by multiplex PCR and heteroduplex analyses of RET proto-oncogene mutations. Hum Mutat. 1996;8(1):64-70. [PubMed:8807338 ]
  40. Frank-Raue K, Hoppner W, Frilling A, Kotzerke J, Dralle H, Haase R, Mann K, Seif F, Kirchner R, Rendl J, Deckart HF, Ritter MM, Hampel R, Klempa J, Scholz GH, Raue F: Mutations of the ret protooncogene in German multiple endocrine neoplasia families: relation between genotype and phenotype. German Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 May;81(5):1780-3. [PubMed:8626834 ]
  41. Hoppner W, Ritter MM: A duplication of 12 bp in the critical cysteine rich domain of the RET proto-oncogene results in a distinct phenotype of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Apr;6(4):587-90. [PubMed:9097963 ]
  42. Seri M, Yin L, Barone V, Bolino A, Celli I, Bocciardi R, Pasini B, Ceccherini I, Lerone M, Kristoffersson U, Larsson LT, Casasa JM, Cass DT, Abramowicz MJ, Vanderwinden JM, Kravcenkiene I, Baric I, Silengo M, Martucciello G, Romeo G: Frequency of RET mutations in long- and short-segment Hirschsprung disease. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(3):243-9. [PubMed:9090527 ]
  43. Peretz H, Luboshitsky R, Baron E, Biton A, Gershoni R, Usher S, Grynberg E, Yakobson E, Graff E, Lapidot M: Cys 618 Arg mutation in the RET proto-oncogene associated with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and maternally transmitted Hirschsprung's disease suggesting a role for imprinting. Hum Mutat. 1997;10(2):155-9. [PubMed:9259198 ]
  44. Gimm O, Marsh DJ, Andrew SD, Frilling A, Dahia PL, Mulligan LM, Zajac JD, Robinson BG, Eng C: Germline dinucleotide mutation in codon 883 of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B without codon 918 mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3902-4. [PubMed:9360560 ]
  45. Hofstra RM, Fattoruso O, Quadro L, Wu Y, Libroia A, Verga U, Colantuoni V, Buys CH: A novel point mutation in the intracellular domain of the ret protooncogene in a family with medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Dec;82(12):4176-8. [PubMed:9398735 ]
  46. Kusafuka T, Wang Y, Puri P: Mutation analysis of the RET, the endothelin-B receptor, and the endothelin-3 genes in sporadic cases of Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Mar;32(3):501-4. [PubMed:9094028 ]
  47. Kitamura Y, Goodfellow PJ, Shimizu K, Nagahama M, Ito K, Kitagawa W, Akasu H, Takami H, Tanaka S, Wells SA Jr: Novel germline RET proto-oncogene mutations associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC): mutation analysis in Japanese patients with MTC. Oncogene. 1997 Jun 26;14(25):3103-6. [PubMed:9223675 ]
  48. Smith DP, Houghton C, Ponder BA: Germline mutation of RET codon 883 in two cases of de novo MEN 2B. Oncogene. 1997 Sep 4;15(10):1213-7. [PubMed:9294615 ]
  49. Amiel J, Salomon R, Attie T, Pelet A, Trang H, Mokhtari M, Gaultier C, Munnich A, Lyonnet S: Mutations of the RET-GDNF signaling pathway in Ondine's curse. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Mar;62(3):715-7. [PubMed:9497256 ]
  50. Oriola J, Paramo C, Halperin I, Garcia-Mayor RV, Rivera-Fillat F: Novel point mutation in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene in a family with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Med Genet. 1998 Jul 7;78(3):271-3. [PubMed:9677065 ]
  51. Svensson PJ, Anvret M, Molander ML, Nordenskjold A: Phenotypic variation in a family with mutations in two Hirschsprung-related genes (RET and endothelin receptor B). Hum Genet. 1998 Aug;103(2):145-8. [PubMed:9760196 ]
  52. Decker RA, Peacock ML, Watson P: Hirschsprung disease in MEN 2A: increased spectrum of RET exon 10 genotypes and strong genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Jan;7(1):129-34. [PubMed:9384613 ]
  53. Hoppner W, Dralle H, Brabant G: Duplication of 9 base pairs in the critical cysteine-rich domain of the RET proto-oncogene causes multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S128-30. [PubMed:9452064 ]
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