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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01561
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6857
  • HMDBP05044
Name Cytochrome P450 19A1
Synonyms
  1. Aromatase
  2. CYPXIX
  3. Cytochrome P-450AROM
  4. Estrogen synthase
Gene Name CYP19A1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Pathways
  • 17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III Deficiency
  • Androgen and Estrogen Metabolism
  • Androstenedione Metabolism
  • Aromatase deficiency
  • Steroid hormone biosynthesis
Reactions
RH + reduced flavoprotein + Oxygen → ROH + oxidized flavoprotein + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
biphenyl metabolic process
cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus
cellular response to follicle-stimulating hormone stimulus
dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process
hippocampus development
phthalate metabolic process
adrenal gland development
response to ionizing radiation
cellular response to hydrostatic pressure
granulocyte differentiation
hypothalamus development
melatonin metabolic process
prostate gland growth
regulation of synapse structure and activity
response to cesium ion
response to testosterone stimulus
cellular response to glucose stimulus
response to drug
xenobiotic metabolic process
bile acid metabolic process
progesterone metabolic process
male gonad development
androgen metabolic process
bone development
response to estradiol stimulus
response to herbicide
response to morphine
estrogen biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
cytosol
synaptic vesicle
terminal button
dendritic spine
neuronal cell body
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
electron carrier activity
iron ion binding
monooxygenase activity
heme binding
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
electron carrier activity
oxygen binding
aromatase activity
iron ion binding
heme binding
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Peripheral membrane protein
  2. Membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 15
Locus 15q21.1
SNPs CYP19A1
Gene Sequence
>1512 bp
ATGGTTTTGGAAATGCTGAACCCGATACATTATAACATCACCAGCATCGTGCCTGAAGCC
ATGCCTGCTGCCACCATGCCAGTCCTGCTCCTCACTGGCCTTTTTCTCTTGGTGTGGAAT
TATGAGGGCACATCCTCAATACCAGGTCCTGGCTACTGCATGGGAATTGGACCCCTCATC
TCCCACGGCAGATTCCTGTGGATGGGGATCGGCAGTGCCTGCAACTACTACAACCGGGTA
TATGGAGAATTCATGCGAGTCTGGATCTCTGGAGAGGAAACACTCATTATCAGCAAGTCC
TCAAGTATGTTCCACATAATGAAGCACAATCATTACAGCTCTCGATTCGGCAGCAAACTT
GGGCTGCAGTGCATCGGTATGCATGAGAAAGGCATCATATTTAACAACAATCCAGAGCTC
TGGAAAACAACTCGACCCTTCTTTATGAAAGCTCTGTCAGGCCCCGGCCTTGTTCGTATG
GTCACAGTCTGTGCTGAATCCCTCAAAACACATCTGGACAGGTTGGAGGAGGTGACCAAT
GAATCGGGCTATGTGGACGTGTTGACCCTTCTGCGTCGTGTCATGCTGGACACCTCTAAC
ACGCTCTTCTTGAGGATCCCTTTGGACGAAAGTGCTATCGTGGTTAAAATCCAAGGTTAT
TTTGATGCATGGCAAGCTCTCCTCATCAAACCAGACATCTTCTTTAAGATTTCTTGGCTA
TACAAAAAGTATGAGAAGTCTGTCAAGGATTTGAAAGATGCCATAGAAGTTCTGATAGCA
GAAAAAAGACGCAGGATTTCCACAGAAGAGAAACTGGAAGAATGTATGGACTTTGCCACT
GAGTTGATTTTAGCAGAGAAACGTGGTGACCTGACAAGAGAGAATGTGAACCAGTGCATA
TTGGAAATGCTGATCGCAGCTCCTGACACCATGTCTGTCTCTTTGTTCTTCATGCTATTT
CTCATTGCAAAGCACCCTAATGTTGAAGAGGCAATAATAAAGGAAATCCAGACTGTTATT
GGTGAGAGAGACATAAAGATTGATGATATACAAAAATTAAAAGTGATGGAAAACTTCATT
TATGAGAGCATGCGGTACCAGCCTGTCGTGGACTTGGTCATGCGCAAAGCCTTAGAAGAT
GATGTAATCGATGGCTACCCAGTGAAAAAGGGGACAAACATTATCCTGAATATTGGAAGG
ATGCACAGACTCGAGTTTTTCCCCAAACCCAATGAATTTACTCTTGAAAATTTTGCAAAG
AATGTTCCTTATAGGTACTTTCAGCCATTTGGCTTTGGGCCCCGTGGCTGTGCAGGAAAG
TACATCGCCATGGTGATGATGAAAGCCATCCTCGTTACACTTCTGAGACGATTCCACGTG
AAGACATTGCAAGGACAGTGTGTTGAGAGCATACAGAAGATACACGACTTGTCCTTGCAC
CCAGATGAGACTAAAAACATGCTGGAAATGATCTTTACCCCAAGAAACTCAGACAGGTGT
CTGGAACACTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 503
Molecular Weight 57882.48
Theoretical pI 7.502
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Cytochrome P450 19A1
MVLEMLNPIHYNITSIVPEAMPAATMPVLLLTGLFLLVWNYEGTSSIPGPGYCMGIGPLI
SHGRFLWMGIGSACNYYNRVYGEFMRVWISGEETLIISKSSSMFHIMKHNHYSSRFGSKL
GLQCIGMHEKGIIFNNNPELWKTTRPFFMKALSGPGLVRMVTVCAESLKTHLDRLEEVTN
ESGYVDVLTLLRRVMLDTSNTLFLRIPLDESAIVVKIQGYFDAWQALLIKPDIFFKISWL
YKKYEKSVKDLKDAIEVLIAEKRRRISTEEKLEECMDFATELILAEKRGDLTRENVNQCI
LEMLIAAPDTMSVSLFFMLFLIAKHPNVEEAIIKEIQTVIGERDIKIDDIQKLKVMENFI
YESMRYQPVVDLVMRKALEDDVIDGYPVKKGTNIILNIGRMHRLEFFPKPNEFTLENFAK
NVPYRYFQPFGFGPRGCAGKYIAMVMMKAILVTLLRRFHVKTLQGQCVESIQKIHDLSLH
PDETKNMLEMIFTPRNSDRCLEH
GenBank ID Protein 61354153
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P11511
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CP19A_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AY957953
GeneCard ID CYP19A1
GenAtlas ID CYP19A1
HGNC ID HGNC:2594
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Beausoleil SA, Villen J, Gerber SA, Rush J, Gygi SP: A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization. Nat Biotechnol. 2006 Oct;24(10):1285-92. Epub 2006 Sep 10. [PubMed:16964243 ]
  3. Ley TJ, Mardis ER, Ding L, Fulton B, McLellan MD, Chen K, Dooling D, Dunford-Shore BH, McGrath S, Hickenbotham M, Cook L, Abbott R, Larson DE, Koboldt DC, Pohl C, Smith S, Hawkins A, Abbott S, Locke D, Hillier LW, Miner T, Fulton L, Magrini V, Wylie T, Glasscock J, Conyers J, Sander N, Shi X, Osborne JR, Minx P, Gordon D, Chinwalla A, Zhao Y, Ries RE, Payton JE, Westervelt P, Tomasson MH, Watson M, Baty J, Ivanovich J, Heath S, Shannon WD, Nagarajan R, Walter MJ, Link DC, Graubert TA, DiPersio JF, Wilson RK: DNA sequencing of a cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia genome. Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):66-72. doi: 10.1038/nature07485. [PubMed:18987736 ]
  4. Harada N: Cloning of a complete cDNA encoding human aromatase: immunochemical identification and sequence analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 31;156(2):725-32. [PubMed:2973313 ]
  5. Chen SA, Besman MJ, Sparkes RS, Zollman S, Klisak I, Mohandas T, Hall PF, Shively JE: Human aromatase: cDNA cloning, Southern blot analysis, and assignment of the gene to chromosome 15. DNA. 1988 Jan-Feb;7(1):27-38. [PubMed:3390233 ]
  6. Corbin CJ, Graham-Lorence S, McPhaul M, Mason JI, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Isolation of a full-length cDNA insert encoding human aromatase system cytochrome P-450 and its expression in nonsteroidogenic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(23):8948-52. [PubMed:2848247 ]
  7. Toda K, Terashima M, Mitsuuchi Y, Yamasaki Y, Yokoyama Y, Nojima S, Ushiro H, Maeda T, Yamamoto Y, Sagara Y, et al.: Alternative usage of different poly(A) addition signals for two major species of mRNA encoding human aromatase P-450. FEBS Lett. 1989 Apr 24;247(2):371-6. [PubMed:2541021 ]
  8. Means GD, Mahendroo MS, Corbin CJ, Mathis JM, Powell FE, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Structural analysis of the gene encoding human aromatase cytochrome P-450, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15;264(32):19385-91. [PubMed:2808431 ]
  9. Pompon D, Liu RY, Besman MJ, Wang PL, Shively JE, Chen S: Expression of human placental aromatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Endocrinol. 1989 Sep;3(9):1477-87. [PubMed:2691883 ]
  10. Harada N, Ogawa H, Shozu M, Yamada K, Suhara K, Nishida E, Takagi Y: Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses on placental aromatase (P-450AROM) deficiency. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4781-5. [PubMed:1371509 ]
  11. Evans CT, Ledesma DB, Schulz TZ, Simpson ER, Mendelson CR: Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA specific for human aromatase-system cytochrome P-450 mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep;83(17):6387-91. [PubMed:3018730 ]
  12. Simpson ER, Evans CT, Corbin CJ, Powell FE, Ledesma DB, Mendelson CR: Sequencing of cDNA inserts encoding aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P-450AROM). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1987 Aug;52(3):267-72. [PubMed:3653507 ]
  13. Mahendroo MS, Means GD, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Tissue-specific expression of human P-450AROM. The promoter responsible for expression in adipose tissue is different from that utilized in placenta. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 15;266(17):11276-81. [PubMed:2040633 ]
  14. Mahendroo MS, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Tissue-specific and hormonally controlled alternative promoters regulate aromatase cytochrome P450 gene expression in human adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 15;268(26):19463-70. [PubMed:7690033 ]
  15. Chen S, Shively JE, Nakajin S, Shinoda M, Hall PF: Amino terminal sequence analysis of human placenta aromatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Mar 28;135(3):713-9. [PubMed:3964273 ]
  16. Honda S, Harada N, Takagi Y: Novel exon 1 of the aromatase gene specific for aromatase transcripts in human brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Feb 15;198(3):1153-60. [PubMed:8117272 ]
  17. Ghosh D, Griswold J, Erman M, Pangborn W: Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase. Nature. 2009 Jan 8;457(7226):219-23. doi: 10.1038/nature07614. [PubMed:19129847 ]
  18. Ito Y, Fisher CR, Conte FA, Grumbach MM, Simpson ER: Molecular basis of aromatase deficiency in an adult female with sexual infantilism and polycystic ovaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15;90(24):11673-7. [PubMed:8265607 ]
  19. Morishima A, Grumbach MM, Simpson ER, Fisher C, Qin K: Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Dec;80(12):3689-98. [PubMed:8530621 ]
  20. Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER: Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 10;337(2):91-5. [PubMed:9211678 ]