You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01864
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7258
Name Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
Synonyms
  1. Endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor
  2. PAI
  3. PAI-1
  4. Serpin E1
Gene Name SERPINE1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, and protein C. Its rapid interaction with TPA may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Function
peptidase inhibitor activity
endopeptidase inhibitor activity
serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
enzyme regulator activity
enzyme inhibitor activity
Cellular Location
  1. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:7
Locus 7q21.3-q22
SNPs SERPINE1
Gene Sequence
>1209 bp
ATGCAGATGTCTCCAGCCCTCACCTGCCTAGTCCTGGGCCTGGCCCTTGTCTTTGGTGAA
GGGTCTGCTGTGCACCATCCCCCATCCTACGTGGCCCACCTGGCCTCAGACTTCGGGGTG
AGGGTGTTTCAGCAGGTGGCGCAGGCCTCCAAGGACCGCAACGTGGTTTTCTCACCCTAT
GGGGTGGCCTCGGTGTTGGCCATGCTCCAGCTGACAACAGGAGGAGAAACCCAGCAGCAG
ATTCAAGCAGCTATGGGATTCAAGATTGATGACAAGGGCATGGCCCCCGCCCTCCGGCAT
CTGTACAAGGAGCTCATGGGGCCATGGAACAAGGACGAGATCAGCACCACAGACGCGATC
TTCGTCCAGCGGGATCTGAAGCTGGTCCAGGGCTTCATGCCCCACTTCTTCAGGCTGTTC
CGGAGCACGGTCAAGCAAGTGGACTTTTCAGAGGTGGAGAGAGCCAGATTCATCATCAAT
GACTGGGTGAAGACACACACAAAAGGTATGATCAGCAACTTGCTTGGGAAAGGAGCCGTG
GACCAGCTGACACGGCTGGTGCTGGTGAATGCCCTCTACTTCAACGGCCAGTGGAAGACT
CCCTTCCCCGACTCCAGCACCCACCGCCGCCTCTTCCACAAATCAGACGGCAGCACTGTC
TCTGTGCCCATGATGGCTCAGACCAACAAGTTCAACTATACTGAGTTCACCACGCCCGAT
GGCCATTACTACGACATCCTGGAACTGCCCTACCACGGGGACACCCTCAGCATGTTCATT
GCTGCCCCTTATGAAAAAGAGGTGCCTCTCTCTGCCCTCACCAACATTCTGAGTGCCCAG
CTCATCAGCCACTGGAAAGGCAACATGACCAGGCTGCCCCGCCTCCTGGTTCTGCCCAAG
TTCTCCCTGGAGACTGAAGTCGACCTCAGGAAGCCCCTAGAGAACCTGGGAATGACCGAC
ATGTTCAGACAGTTTCAGGCTGACTTCACGAGTCTTTCAGACCAAGAGCCTCTCCACGTC
GCGCAGGCGCTGCAGAAAGTGAAGATCGAGGTGAACGAGAGTGGCACGGTGGCCTCCTCA
TCCACAGCTGTCATAGTCTCAGCCCGCATGGCCCCCGAGGAGATCATCATGGACAGACCC
TTCCTCTTTGTGGTCCGGCACAACCCCACAGGAACAGTCCTTTTCATGGGCCAAGTGATG
GAACCCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 402
Molecular Weight 45059.7
Theoretical pI 7.22
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-23
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
MQMSPALTCLVLGLALVFGEGSAVHHPPSYVAHLASDFGVRVFQQVAQASKDRNVVFSPY
GVASVLAMLQLTTGGETQQQIQAAMGFKIDDKGMAPALRHLYKELMGPWNKDEISTTDAI
FVQRDLKLVQGFMPHFFRLFRSTVKQVDFSEVERARFIINDWVKTHTKGMISNLLGKGAV
DQLTRLVLVNALYFNGQWKTPFPDSSTHRRLFHKSDGSTVSVPMMAQTNKFNYTEFTTPD
GHYYDILELPYHGDTLSMFIAAPYEKEVPLSALTNILSAQLISHWKGNMTRLPRLLVLPK
FSLETEVDLRKPLENLGMTDMFRQFQADFTSLSDQEPLHVAQALQKVKIEVNESGTVASS
STAVIVSARMAPEEIIMDRPFLFVVRHNPTGTVLFMGQVMEP
GenBank ID Protein 35272
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P05121
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PAI1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X04429
GeneCard ID SERPINE1
GenAtlas ID SERPINE1
HGNC ID HGNC:8583
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7. Nature. 2003 Jul 10;424(6945):157-64. [PubMed:12853948 ]
  3. Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):231-8. [PubMed:10391209 ]
  4. Pannekoek H, Veerman H, Lambers H, Diergaarde P, Verweij CL, van Zonneveld AJ, van Mourik JA: Endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI): a new member of the Serpin gene family. EMBO J. 1986 Oct;5(10):2539-44. [PubMed:2430793 ]
  5. Loskutoff DJ, Linders M, Keijer J, Veerman H, van Heerikhuizen H, Pannekoek H: Structure of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene: nonrandom distribution of introns. Biochemistry. 1987 Jun 30;26(13):3763-8. [PubMed:2820474 ]
  6. Ginsburg D, Zeheb R, Yang AY, Rafferty UM, Andreasen PA, Nielsen L, Dano K, Lebo RV, Gelehrter TD: cDNA cloning of human plasminogen activator-inhibitor from endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1986 Dec;78(6):1673-80. [PubMed:3097076 ]
  7. Follo M, Ginsburg D: Structure and expression of the human gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor, PAI-1. Gene. 1989 Dec 14;84(2):447-53. [PubMed:2612914 ]
  8. Strandberg L, Lawrence D, Ny T: The organization of the human-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 gene. Implications on the evolution of the serine-protease inhibitor family. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Oct 1;176(3):609-16. [PubMed:3262512 ]
  9. Bosma PJ, van den Berg EA, Kooistra T, Siemieniak DR, Slightom JL: Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene. Promoter and structural gene nucleotide sequences. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 5;263(19):9129-41. [PubMed:3132455 ]
  10. Ny T, Sawdey M, Lawrence D, Millan JL, Loskutoff DJ: Cloning and sequence of a cDNA coding for the human beta-migrating endothelial-cell-type plasminogen activator inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep;83(18):6776-80. [PubMed:3092219 ]
  11. Andreasen PA, Riccio A, Welinder KG, Douglas R, Sartorio R, Nielsen LS, Oppenheimer C, Blasi F, Dano K: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1: reactive center and amino-terminal heterogeneity determined by protein and cDNA sequencing. FEBS Lett. 1986 Dec 15;209(2):213-8. [PubMed:3025016 ]
  12. Wun TC, Kretzmer KK: cDNA cloning and expression in E. coli of a plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) related to a PAI produced by Hep G2 hepatoma cell. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jan 1;210(1):11-6. [PubMed:3026837 ]
  13. Sigurdardottir O, Wiman B: Identification of a PAI-1 binding site in vitronectin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Sep 21;1208(1):104-10. [PubMed:7522053 ]
  14. Liu CX, Li Y, Obermoeller-McCormick LM, Schwartz AL, Bu G: The putative tumor suppressor LRP1B, a novel member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, exhibits both overlapping and distinct properties with the LDL receptor-related protein. J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 3;276(31):28889-96. Epub 2001 May 30. [PubMed:11384978 ]
  15. Mottonen J, Strand A, Symersky J, Sweet RM, Danley DE, Geoghegan KF, Gerard RD, Goldsmith EJ: Structural basis of latency in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Nature. 1992 Jan 16;355(6357):270-3. [PubMed:1731226 ]
  16. Aertgeerts K, De Bondt HL, De Ranter CJ, Declerck PJ: Mechanisms contributing to the conformational and functional flexibility of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Nat Struct Biol. 1995 Oct;2(10):891-7. [PubMed:7552714 ]
  17. Xue Y, Bjorquist P, Inghardt T, Linschoten M, Musil D, Sjolin L, Deinum J: Interfering with the inhibitory mechanism of serpins: crystal structure of a complex formed between cleaved plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and a reactive-centre loop peptide. Structure. 1998 May 15;6(5):627-36. [PubMed:9634700 ]
  18. Sharp AM, Stein PE, Pannu NS, Carrell RW, Berkenpas MB, Ginsburg D, Lawrence DA, Read RJ: The active conformation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, a target for drugs to control fibrinolysis and cell adhesion. Structure. 1999 Feb 15;7(2):111-8. [PubMed:10368279 ]
  19. Nar H, Bauer M, Stassen JM, Lang D, Gils A, Declerck PJ: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Structure of the native serpin, comparison to its other conformers and implications for serpin inactivation. J Mol Biol. 2000 Mar 31;297(3):683-95. [PubMed:10731421 ]
  20. Turkmen B, Schmitt M, Schmalfeldt B, Trommler P, Hell W, Creutzburg S, Graeff H, Magdolen V: Mutational analysis of the genes encoding urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in advanced ovarian cancer. Electrophoresis. 1997 May;18(5):686-9. [PubMed:9194591 ]