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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02002
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7453
Name Vitamin K-dependent protein C
Synonyms
  1. Activation peptide
  2. Anticoagulant protein C
  3. Autoprothrombin IIA
  4. Blood coagulation factor XIV
  5. Vitamin K-dependent protein C heavy chain
  6. Vitamin K-dependent protein C light chain
Gene Name PROC
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific Function Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Component
extracellular region
Function
endopeptidase activity
serine-type endopeptidase activity
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
peptidase activity
peptidase activity, acting on l-amino acid peptides
calcium ion binding
Process
blood coagulation
metabolic process
multicellular organismal process
macromolecule metabolic process
protein metabolic process
proteolysis
regulation of body fluid levels
hemostasis
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasmic
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:2
Locus 2q13-q14
SNPs PROC
Gene Sequence
>1386 bp
ATGTGGCAGCTCACAAGCCTCCTGCTGTTCGTGGCCACCTGGGGAATTTCCGGCACACCA
GCTCCTCTTGACTCAGTGTTCTCCAGCAGCGAGCGTGCCCACCAGGTGCTGCGGATCCGC
AAACGTGCCAACTCCTTCCTGGAGGAGCTCCGTCACAGCAGCCTGGAGCGGGAGTGCATA
GAGGAGATCTGTGACTTCGAGGAGGCCAAGGAAATTTTCCAAAATGTGGATGACACACTG
GCCTTCTGGTCCAAGCACGTCGACGGTGACCAGTGCTTGGTCTTGCCCTTGGAGCACCCG
TGCGCCAGCCTGTGCTGCGGGCACGGCACGTGCATCGACGGCATCGGCAGCTTCAGCTGC
GACTGCCGCAGCGGCTGGGAGGGCCGCTTCTGCCAGCGCGAGGTGAGCTTCCTCAATTGC
TCGCTGGACAACGGCGGCTGCACGCATTACTGCCTAGAGGAGGTGGGCTGGCGGCGCTGT
AGCTGTGCGCCTGGCTACAAGCTGGGGGACGACCTCCTGCAGTGTCACCCCGCAGTGAAG
TTCCCTTGTGGGAGGCCCTGGAAGCGGATGGAGAAGAAGCGCAGTCACCTGAAACGAGAC
ACAGAAGACCAAGAAGACCAAGTAGATCCGCGGCTCATTGATGGGAAGATGACCAGGCGG
GGAGACAGCCCCTGGCAGGTGGTCCTGCTGGACTCAAAGAAGAAGCTGGCCTGCGGGGCA
GTGCTCATCCACCCCTCCTGGGTGCTGACAGCGGCCCACTGCATGGATGAGTCCAAGAAG
CTCCTTGTCAGGCTTGGAGAGTATGACCTGCGGCGCTGGGAGAAGTGGGAGCTGGACCTG
GACATCAAGGAGGTCTTCGTCCACCCCAACTACAGCAAGAGCACCACCGACAATGACATC
GCACTGCTGCACCTGGCCCAGCCCGCCACCCTCTCGCAGACCATAGTGCCCATCTGCCTC
CCGGACAGCGGCCTTGCAGAGCGCGAGCTCAATCAGGCCGGCCAGGAGACCCTCGTGACG
GGCTGGGGCTACCACAGCAGCCGAGAGAAGGAGGCCAAGAGAAACCGCACCTTCGTCCTC
AACTTCATCAAGATTCCCGTGGTCCCGCACAATGAGTGCAGCGAGGTCATGAGCAACATG
GTGTCTGAGAACATGCTGTGTGCGGGCATCCTCGGGGACCGGCAGGATGCCTGCGAGGGC
GACAGTGGGGGGCCCATGGTCGCCTCCTTCCACGGCACCTGGTTCCTGGTGGGCCTGGTG
AGCTGGGGTGAGGGCTGTGGGCTCCTTCACAACTACGGCGTTTACACCAAAGTCAGCCGC
TACCTCGACTGGATCCATGGGCACATCAGAGACAAGGAAGCCCCCCAGAAGAGCTGGGCA
CCTTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 461
Molecular Weight 52070.8
Theoretical pI 6.23
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • 1-32
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Vitamin K-dependent protein C
MWQLTSLLLFVATWGISGTPAPLDSVFSSSERAHQVLRIRKRANSFLEELRHSSLERECI
EEICDFEEAKEIFQNVDDTLAFWSKHVDGDQCLVLPLEHPCASLCCGHGTCIDGIGSFSC
DCRSGWEGRFCQREVSFLNCSLDNGGCTHYCLEEVGWRRCSCAPGYKLGDDLLQCHPAVK
FPCGRPWKRMEKKRSHLKRDTEDQEDQVDPRLIDGKMTRRGDSPWQVVLLDSKKKLACGA
VLIHPSWVLTAAHCMDESKKLLVRLGEYDLRRWEKWELDLDIKEVFVHPNYSKSTTDNDI
ALLHLAQPATLSQTIVPICLPDSGLAERELNQAGQETLVTGWGYHSSREKEAKRNRTFVL
NFIKIPVVPHNECSEVMSNMVSENMLCAGILGDRQDACEGDSGGPMVASFHGTWFLVGLV
SWGEGCGLLHNYGVYTKVSRYLDWIHGHIRDKEAPQKSWAP
GenBank ID Protein 763120
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P04070
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PROC_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X02750
GeneCard ID PROC
GenAtlas ID PROC
HGNC ID HGNC:9451
References
General References
  1. Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):724-31. [PubMed:15815621 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG 2nd, Monroe ME, Moore RJ, Smith RD: Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;4(6):2070-80. [PubMed:16335952 ]
  4. Beckmann RJ, Schmidt RJ, Santerre RF, Plutzky J, Crabtree GR, Long GL: The structure and evolution of a 461 amino acid human protein C precursor and its messenger RNA, based upon the DNA sequence of cloned human liver cDNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jul 25;13(14):5233-47. [PubMed:2991859 ]
  5. Foster DC, Yoshitake S, Davie EW: The nucleotide sequence of the gene for human protein C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul;82(14):4673-7. [PubMed:2991887 ]
  6. Plutzky J, Hoskins JA, Long GL, Crabtree GR: Evolution and organization of the human protein C gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb;83(3):546-50. [PubMed:3511471 ]
  7. Miyata T, Zheng YZ, Sakata T, Kato H: Protein C Osaka 10 with aberrant propeptide processing: loss of anticoagulant activity due to an amino acid substitution in the protein C precursor. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Oct;74(4):1003-8. [PubMed:8560401 ]
  8. Mimuro J, Muramatsu S, Kaneko M, Yoshitake S, Iijima K, Nakamura K, Sakata Y, Matsuda M: An abnormal protein C (protein C Yonago) with an amino acid substitution of Gly for Arg-15 caused by a single base mutation of C to G in codon 57 (CGG-->GGG). Deteriorated calcium-dependent conformation of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain relevant to a thrombotic tendency. Int J Hematol. 1993 Jan;57(1):9-14. [PubMed:8477066 ]
  9. Foster D, Davie EW: Characterization of a cDNA coding for human protein C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Aug;81(15):4766-70. [PubMed:6589623 ]
  10. Long GL, Tomczak JA, Rainville IR, Dreyfus M, Schramm W, Schwarz HP: Homozygous type I protein C deficiency in two unrelated families exhibiting thrombophilia related to Ala136-->Pro or Arg286-->His mutations. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Oct;72(4):526-33. [PubMed:7878626 ]
  11. Miletich JP, Broze GJ Jr: Beta protein C is not glycosylated at asparagine 329. The rate of translation may influence the frequency of usage at asparagine-X-cysteine sites. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 5;265(19):11397-404. [PubMed:1694179 ]
  12. Harris RJ, Ling VT, Spellman MW: O-linked fucose is present in the first epidermal growth factor domain of factor XII but not protein C. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 15;267(8):5102-7. [PubMed:1544894 ]
  13. Fisher CL, Greengard JS, Griffin JH: Models of the serine protease domain of the human antithrombotic plasma factor activated protein C and its zymogen. Protein Sci. 1994 Apr;3(4):588-99. [PubMed:8003977 ]
  14. Mather T, Oganessyan V, Hof P, Huber R, Foundling S, Esmon C, Bode W: The 2.8 A crystal structure of Gla-domainless activated protein C. EMBO J. 1996 Dec 16;15(24):6822-31. [PubMed:9003757 ]
  15. Reitsma PH, Poort SR, Bernardi F, Gandrille S, Long GL, Sala N, Cooper DN: Protein C deficiency: a database of mutations. For the Protein C & S Subcommittee of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Thromb Haemost. 1993 Jan 11;69(1):77-84. [PubMed:8446940 ]
  16. Romeo G, Hassan HJ, Staempfli S, Roncuzzi L, Cianetti L, Leonardi A, Vicente V, Mannucci PM, Bertina R, Peschle C, et al.: Hereditary thrombophilia: identification of nonsense and missense mutations in the protein C gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May;84(9):2829-32. [PubMed:2437584 ]
  17. Grundy C, Chitolie A, Talbot S, Bevan D, Kakkar V, Cooper DN: Protein C London 1: recurrent mutation at Arg 169 (CGG----TGG) in the protein C gene causing thrombosis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Dec 25;17(24):10513. [PubMed:2602169 ]
  18. Reitsma PH, Poort SR, Allaart CF, Briet E, Bertina RM: The spectrum of genetic defects in a panel of 40 Dutch families with symptomatic protein C deficiency type I: heterogeneity and founder effects. Blood. 1991 Aug 15;78(4):890-4. [PubMed:1868249 ]
  19. Bovill EG, Tomczak JA, Grant B, Bhushan F, Pillemer E, Rainville IR, Long GL: Protein CVermont: symptomatic type II protein C deficiency associated with two GLA domain mutations. Blood. 1992 Mar 15;79(6):1456-65. [PubMed:1347706 ]
  20. Sugahara Y, Miura O, Yuen P, Aoki N: Protein C deficiency Hong Kong 1 and 2: hereditary protein C deficiency caused by two mutant alleles, a 5-nucleotide deletion and a missense mutation. Blood. 1992 Jul 1;80(1):126-33. [PubMed:1611081 ]
  21. Grundy CB, Chisholm M, Kakkar VV, Cooper DN: A novel homozygous missense mutation in the protein C (PROC) gene causing recurrent venous thrombosis. Hum Genet. 1992 Aug;89(6):683-4. [PubMed:1511988 ]
  22. Grundy CB, Schulman S, Tengborn L, Kakkar VV, Cooper DN: Two different missense mutations at Arg 178 of the protein C (PROC) gene causing recurrent venous thrombosis. Hum Genet. 1992 Aug;89(6):685-6. [PubMed:1511989 ]
  23. Gandrille S, Vidaud M, Aiach M, Alhenc-Gelas M, Fischer AM, Gouault-Heilman M, Toulon P, Fiessinger JN, Goossens M: Two novel mutations responsible for hereditary type I protein C deficiency: characterization by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(6):491-500. [PubMed:1301959 ]
  24. Yamamoto K, Matsushita T, Sugiura I, Takamatsu J, Iwasaki E, Wada H, Deguchi K, Shirakawa S, Saito H: Homozygous protein C deficiency: identification of a novel missense mutation that causes impaired secretion of the mutant protein C. J Lab Clin Med. 1992 Jun;119(6):682-9. [PubMed:1593215 ]
  25. Gandrille S, Alhenc-Gelas M, Gaussem P, Aillaud MF, Dupuy E, Juhan-Vague I, Aiach M: Five novel mutations located in exons III and IX of the protein C gene in patients presenting with defective protein C anticoagulant activity. Blood. 1993 Jul 1;82(1):159-68. [PubMed:8324221 ]
  26. Poort SR, Pabinger-Fasching I, Mannhalter C, Reitsma PH, Bertina RM: Twelve novel and two recurrent mutations in 14 Austrian families with hereditary protein C deficiency. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1993 Apr;4(2):273-80. [PubMed:8499565 ]
  27. Millar DS, Grundy CB, Bignell P, Moffat EH, Martin R, Kakkar VV, Cooper DN: A Gla domain mutation (Arg 15-->Trp) in the protein C (PROC) gene causing type 2 protein C deficiency and recurrent venous thrombosis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1993 Apr;4(2):345-7. [PubMed:8499568 ]
  28. Tsay W, Greengard JS, Montgomery RR, McPherson RA, Fucci JC, Koerper MA, Coughlin J, Griffin JH: Genetic mutations in ten unrelated American patients with symptomatic type 1 protein C deficiency. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1993 Oct;4(5):791-6. [PubMed:8292730 ]
  29. Marchetti G, Patracchini P, Gemmati D, Castaman G, Rodeghiero F, Wacey A, Cooper DN, Tuddenham EG, Bernardi F: Symptomatic type II protein C deficiency caused by a missense mutation (Gly 381-->Ser) in the substrate-binding pocket. Br J Haematol. 1993 Jun;84(2):285-9. [PubMed:8398832 ]
  30. Gandrille S, Jude B, Alhenc-Gelas M, Emmerich J, Aiach M: First de novo mutations in the protein C gene of two patients with type I deficiency: a missense mutation and a splice site deletion. Blood. 1994 Oct 15;84(8):2566-70. [PubMed:7919373 ]
  31. Millar DS, Allgrove J, Rodeck C, Kakkar VV, Cooper DN: A homozygous deletion/insertion mutation in the protein C (PROC) gene causing neonatal Purpura fulminans: prenatal diagnosis in an at-risk pregnancy. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994 Aug;5(4):647-9. [PubMed:7841323 ]
  32. Witt I, Beck S, Seydewitz HH, Tasangil C, Schenck W: A novel homozygous missense mutation (Val 325-->Ala) in the protein C gene causing neonatal purpura fulminans. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994 Aug;5(4):651-3. [PubMed:7841324 ]
  33. Zheng YZ, Sakata T, Matsusue T, Umeyama H, Kato H, Miyata T: Six missense mutations associated with type I and type II protein C deficiency and implications obtained from molecular modelling. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1994 Oct;5(5):687-96. [PubMed:7865674 ]
  34. Gaussem P, Gandrille S, Duchemin J, Emmerich J, Alhenc-Gelas M, Aillaud MF, Aiach M: Influence of six mutations of the protein C gene on the Gla domain conformation and calcium affinity. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Jun;71(6):748-54. [PubMed:7974343 ]
  35. Millar DS, Bevan D, Chitolie A, Reynaud J, Chisholm M, Kakkar VV, Cooper DN: Three novel mutations in the protein C (PROC) gene causing venous thrombosis. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1995 Apr;6(2):138-40. [PubMed:7605880 ]
  36. Lind B, Schwartz M, Thorsen S: Six different point mutations in seven Danish families with symptomatic protein C deficiency. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Feb;73(2):186-93. [PubMed:7792728 ]
  37. Ireland HA, Boisclair MD, Taylor J, Thompson E, Thein SL, Girolami A, De Caterina M, Scopacasa F, De Stefano V, Leone G, Finazzi G, Cohen H, Lane DA: Two novel (R(-11)C; T394D) and two repeat missense mutations in the protein C gene associated with venous thrombosis in six kindreds. Hum Mutat. 1996;7(2):176-9. [PubMed:8829639 ]
  38. Couture P, Demers C, Morissette J, Delage R, Jomphe M, Couture L, Simard J: Type I protein C deficiency in French Canadians: evidence of a founder effect and association of specific protein C gene mutations with plasma protein C levels. Thromb Haemost. 1998 Oct;80(4):551-6. [PubMed:9798967 ]