Canmetcon
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02053
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7532
Name Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Synonyms
  1. Superoxide dismutase 1
  2. hSod1
Gene Name SOD1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in metal ion binding
Specific Function Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Pathways
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  • Degradation of Superoxides
  • Huntington's disease
  • Peroxisome
  • Prion diseases
Reactions
Superoxide + Hydrogen Ion → Oxygen + Hydrogen peroxide details
GO Classification
Biological Process
sensory perception of sound
locomotory behavior
spermatogenesis
apoptotic DNA fragmentation
embryo implantation
heart contraction
muscle cell homeostasis
positive regulation of apoptotic process
platelet activation
platelet degranulation
anterograde axon cargo transport
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
myeloid cell homeostasis
negative regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic process
response to heat
neurofilament cytoskeleton organization
peripheral nervous system myelin maintenance
regulation of organ growth
regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus
retina homeostasis
retrograde axon cargo transport
thymus development
regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential
double-strand break repair
positive regulation of cytokine production
response to drug
response to ethanol
hydrogen peroxide biosynthetic process
cellular iron ion homeostasis
glutathione metabolic process
response to amphetamine
regulation of multicellular organism growth
cell aging
auditory receptor cell stereocilium organization
relaxation of vascular smooth muscle
superoxide anion generation
regulation of blood pressure
response to nutrient levels
removal of superoxide radicals
placenta development
response to hydrogen peroxide
response to axon injury
response to copper ion
activation of MAPK activity
ovarian follicle development
Cellular Component
cytosol
mitochondrial matrix
nucleus
neuronal cell body
extracellular space
peroxisome
extracellular matrix
dendrite cytoplasm
cytoplasmic vesicle
protein complex
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
Molecular Function
superoxide dismutase activity
zinc ion binding
protein homodimerization activity
copper ion binding
protein phosphatase 2B binding
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
oxidation reduction
oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolic process
superoxide metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 21
Locus 21q22.11
SNPs SOD1
Gene Sequence
>465 bp
ATGGCGACGAAGGCCGTGTGCGTGCTGAAGGGCGACGGCCCAGTGCAGGGCATCATCAAT
TTCGAGCAGAAGGAAAGTAATGGACCAGTGAAGGTGTGGGGAAGCATTAAAGGACTGACT
GAAGGCCTGCATGGATTCCATGTTCATGAGTTTGGAGATAATACAGCAGGCTGTACCAGT
GCAGGTCCTCACTTTAATCCTCTATCCAGAAAACACGGTGGGCCAAAGGATGAAGAGAGG
CATGTTGGAGACTTGGGCAATGTGACTGCTGACAAAGATGGTGTGGCCGATGTGTCTATT
GAAGATTCTGTGATCTCACTCTCAGGAGACCATTGCATCATTGGCCGCACACTGGTGGTC
CATGAAAAAGCAGATGACTTGGGCAAAGGTGGAAATGAAGAAAGTACAAAGACAGGAAAC
GCTGGAAGTCGTTTGGCTTGTGGTGTAATTGGGATCGCCCAATAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 154
Molecular Weight 15935.685
Theoretical pI 6.122
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
MATKAVCVLKGDGPVQGIINFEQKESNGPVKVWGSIKGLTEGLHGFHVHEFGDNTAGCTS
AGPHFNPLSRKHGGPKDEERHVGDLGNVTADKDGVADVSIEDSVISLSGDHCIIGRTLVV
HEKADDLGKGGNEESTKTGNAGSRLACGVIGIAQ
GenBank ID Protein 36542
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P00441
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name SODC_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X02317
GeneCard ID SOD1
GenAtlas ID SOD1
HGNC ID HGNC:11179
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  4. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669648 ]
  5. Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, Watanabe H, Yada T, Park HS, Toyoda A, Ishii K, Totoki Y, Choi DK, Groner Y, Soeda E, Ohki M, Takagi T, Sakaki Y, Taudien S, Blechschmidt K, Polley A, Menzel U, Delabar J, Kumpf K, Lehmann R, Patterson D, Reichwald K, Rump A, Schillhabel M, Schudy A, Zimmermann W, Rosenthal A, Kudoh J, Schibuya K, Kawasaki K, Asakawa S, Shintani A, Sasaki T, Nagamine K, Mitsuyama S, Antonarakis SE, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Nordsiek G, Hornischer K, Brant P, Scharfe M, Schon O, Desario A, Reichelt J, Kauer G, Blocker H, Ramser J, Beck A, Klages S, Hennig S, Riesselmann L, Dagand E, Haaf T, Wehrmeyer S, Borzym K, Gardiner K, Nizetic D, Francis F, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Yaspo ML: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21. Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):311-9. [PubMed:10830953 ]
  6. Sherman L, Dafni N, Lieman-Hurwitz J, Groner Y: Nucleotide sequence and expression of human chromosome 21-encoded superoxide dismutase mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Sep;80(18):5465-9. [PubMed:6577438 ]
  7. Levanon D, Lieman-Hurwitz J, Dafni N, Wigderson M, Sherman L, Bernstein Y, Laver-Rudich Z, Danciger E, Stein O, Groner Y: Architecture and anatomy of the chromosomal locus in human chromosome 21 encoding the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. EMBO J. 1985 Jan;4(1):77-84. [PubMed:3160582 ]
  8. Hallewell RA, Masiarz FR, Najarian RC, Puma JP, Quiroga MR, Randolph A, Sanchez-Pescador R, Scandella CJ, Smith B, Steimer KS, et al.: Human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase cDNA: isolation of clones synthesising high levels of active or inactive enzyme from an expression library. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Mar 25;13(6):2017-34. [PubMed:3889846 ]
  9. Kajihara J, Enomoto M, Nishijima K, Yabuuchi M, Katoh K: Comparison of properties between human recombinant and placental copper-zinc SOD. J Biochem. 1988 Nov;104(5):851-4. [PubMed:2853161 ]
  10. Jabusch JR, Farb DL, Kerschensteiner DA, Deutsch HF: Some sulfhydryl properties and primary structure of human erythrocyte superoxide dismutase. Biochemistry. 1980 May 27;19(11):2310-6. [PubMed:6770891 ]
  11. Barra D, Martini F, Bannister JV, Schinina ME, Rotilio G, Bannister WH, Bossa F: The complete amino acid sequence of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. FEBS Lett. 1980 Oct 20;120(1):53-6. [PubMed:7002610 ]
  12. Enayat ZE, Orrell RW, Claus A, Ludolph A, Bachus R, Brockmuller J, Ray-Chaudhuri K, Radunovic A, Shaw C, Wilkinson J, et al.: Two novel mutations in the gene for copper zinc superoxide dismutase in UK families with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jul;4(7):1239-40. [PubMed:8528216 ]
  13. Kostrzewa M, Damian MS, Muller U: Superoxide dismutase 1: identification of a novel mutation in a case of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Genet. 1996 Jul;98(1):48-50. [PubMed:8682505 ]
  14. Arnesano F, Banci L, Bertini I, Martinelli M, Furukawa Y, O'Halloran TV: The unusually stable quaternary structure of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 is controlled by both metal occupancy and disulfide status. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 12;279(46):47998-8003. Epub 2004 Aug 23. [PubMed:15326189 ]
  15. Parge HE, Hallewell RA, Tainer JA: Atomic structures of wild-type and thermostable mutant recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 1;89(13):6109-13. [PubMed:1463506 ]
  16. Hart PJ, Liu H, Pellegrini M, Nersissian AM, Gralla EB, Valentine JS, Eisenberg D: Subunit asymmetry in the three-dimensional structure of a human CuZnSOD mutant found in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein Sci. 1998 Mar;7(3):545-55. [PubMed:9541385 ]
  17. Banci L, Benedetto M, Bertini I, Del Conte R, Piccioli M, Viezzoli MS: Solution structure of reduced monomeric Q133M2 copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD). Why is SOD a dimeric enzyme?. Biochemistry. 1998 Aug 25;37(34):11780-91. [PubMed:9718300 ]
  18. Ferraroni M, Rypniewski W, Wilson KS, Viezzoli MS, Banci L, Bertini I, Mangani S: The crystal structure of the monomeric human SOD mutant F50E/G51E/E133Q at atomic resolution. The enzyme mechanism revisited. J Mol Biol. 1999 May 7;288(3):413-26. [PubMed:10329151 ]
  19. Banci L, Bertini I, Cramaro F, Del Conte R, Viezzoli MS: Solution structure of Apo Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: role of metal ions in protein folding. Biochemistry. 2003 Aug 19;42(32):9543-53. [PubMed:12911296 ]
  20. DiDonato M, Craig L, Huff ME, Thayer MM, Cardoso RM, Kassmann CJ, Lo TP, Bruns CK, Powers ET, Kelly JW, Getzoff ED, Tainer JA: ALS mutants of human superoxide dismutase form fibrous aggregates via framework destabilization. J Mol Biol. 2003 Sep 19;332(3):601-15. [PubMed:12963370 ]
  21. Elam JS, Taylor AB, Strange R, Antonyuk S, Doucette PA, Rodriguez JA, Hasnain SS, Hayward LJ, Valentine JS, Yeates TO, Hart PJ: Amyloid-like filaments and water-filled nanotubes formed by SOD1 mutant proteins linked to familial ALS. Nat Struct Biol. 2003 Jun;10(6):461-7. [PubMed:12754496 ]
  22. Hough MA, Grossmann JG, Antonyuk SV, Strange RW, Doucette PA, Rodriguez JA, Whitson LJ, Hart PJ, Hayward LJ, Valentine JS, Hasnain SS: Dimer destabilization in superoxide dismutase may result in disease-causing properties: structures of motor neuron disease mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 20;101(16):5976-81. Epub 2004 Mar 31. [PubMed:15056757 ]
  23. Banci L, Bertini I, Cantini F, D'Amelio N, Gaggelli E: Human SOD1 before harboring the catalytic metal: solution structure of copper-depleted, disulfide-reduced form. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 27;281(4):2333-7. Epub 2005 Nov 14. [PubMed:16291742 ]
  24. Strange RW, Antonyuk SV, Hough MA, Doucette PA, Valentine JS, Hasnain SS: Variable metallation of human superoxide dismutase: atomic resolution crystal structures of Cu-Zn, Zn-Zn and as-isolated wild-type enzymes. J Mol Biol. 2006 Mar 10;356(5):1152-62. Epub 2005 Dec 12. [PubMed:16406071 ]
  25. Hornberg A, Logan DT, Marklund SL, Oliveberg M: The coupling between disulphide status, metallation and dimer interface strength in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jan 12;365(2):333-42. Epub 2006 Sep 23. [PubMed:17070542 ]
  26. Roberts BR, Tainer JA, Getzoff ED, Malencik DA, Anderson SR, Bomben VC, Meyers KR, Karplus PA, Beckman JS: Structural characterization of zinc-deficient human superoxide dismutase and implications for ALS. J Mol Biol. 2007 Nov 2;373(4):877-90. Epub 2007 Aug 2. [PubMed:17888947 ]
  27. Strange RW, Yong CW, Smith W, Hasnain SS: Molecular dynamics using atomic-resolution structure reveal structural fluctuations that may lead to polymerization of human Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 12;104(24):10040-4. Epub 2007 Jun 4. [PubMed:17548825 ]
  28. Cao X, Antonyuk SV, Seetharaman SV, Whitson LJ, Taylor AB, Holloway SP, Strange RW, Doucette PA, Valentine JS, Tiwari A, Hayward LJ, Padua S, Cohlberg JA, Hasnain SS, Hart PJ: Structures of the G85R variant of SOD1 in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 6;283(23):16169-77. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801522200. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18378676 ]
  29. de Belleroche J, Orrell R, King A: Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neurone disease (FALS): a review of current developments. J Med Genet. 1995 Nov;32(11):841-7. [PubMed:8592323 ]
  30. Rosen DR, Siddique T, Patterson D, Figlewicz DA, Sapp P, Hentati A, Donaldson D, Goto J, O'Regan JP, Deng HX, et al.: Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature. 1993 Mar 4;362(6415):59-62. [PubMed:8446170 ]
  31. Rosen DR: Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature. 1993 Jul 22;364(6435):362. [PubMed:8332197 ]
  32. Deng HX, Hentati A, Tainer JA, Iqbal Z, Cayabyab A, Hung WY, Getzoff ED, Hu P, Herzfeldt B, Roos RP, et al.: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and structural defects in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase. Science. 1993 Aug 20;261(5124):1047-51. [PubMed:8351519 ]
  33. Nakano R, Sato S, Inuzuka T, Sakimura K, Mishina M, Takahashi H, Ikuta F, Honma Y, Fujii J, Taniguchi N, et al.: A novel mutation in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in Japanese familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Apr 29;200(2):695-703. [PubMed:8179602 ]
  34. Hirano M, Fujii J, Nagai Y, Sonobe M, Okamoto K, Araki H, Taniguchi N, Ueno S: A new variant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Val7-->Glu) deduced from lymphocyte mRNA sequences from Japanese patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Oct 28;204(2):572-7. [PubMed:7980516 ]
  35. Jones CT, Swingler RJ, Brock DJ: Identification of a novel SOD1 mutation in an apparently sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient and the detection of Ile113Thr in three others. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Apr;3(4):649-50. [PubMed:8069312 ]
  36. Esteban J, Rosen DR, Bowling AC, Sapp P, McKenna-Yasek D, O'Regan JP, Beal MF, Horvitz HR, Brown RH Jr: Identification of two novel mutations and a new polymorphism in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Jun;3(6):997-8. [PubMed:7951252 ]
  37. Kostrzewa M, Burck-Lehmann U, Muller U: Autosomal dominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a novel mutation in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Dec;3(12):2261-2. [PubMed:7881433 ]
  38. Aoki M, Ogasawara M, Matsubara Y, Narisawa K, Nakamura S, Itoyama Y, Abe K: Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Japan associated with H46R mutation in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene: a possible new subtype of familial ALS. J Neurol Sci. 1994 Oct;126(1):77-83. [PubMed:7836951 ]
  39. Suthers G, Laing N, Wilton S, Dorosz S, Waddy H: "Sporadic" motoneuron disease due to familial SOD1 mutation with low penetrance. Lancet. 1994 Dec 24-31;344(8939-8940):1773. [PubMed:7997024 ]
  40. Jones CT, Shaw PJ, Chari G, Brock DJ: Identification of a novel exon 4 SOD1 mutation in a sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient. Mol Cell Probes. 1994 Aug;8(4):329-30. [PubMed:7870076 ]
  41. Pramatarova A, Figlewicz DA, Krizus A, Han FY, Ceballos-Picot I, Nicole A, Dib M, Meininger V, Brown RH, Rouleau GA: Identification of new mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Mar;56(3):592-6. [PubMed:7887412 ]
  42. Ikeda M, Abe K, Aoki M, Ogasawara M, Kameya T, Watanabe M, Shoji M, Hirai S, Itoyama Y: A novel point mutation in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in a patient with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Mar;4(3):491-2. [PubMed:7795609 ]
  43. Yulug IG, Katsanis N, de Belleroche J, Collinge J, Fisher EM: An improved protocol for the analysis of SOD1 gene mutations, and a new mutation in exon 4. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun;4(6):1101-4. [PubMed:7655468 ]
  44. Sjalander A, Beckman G, Deng HX, Iqbal Z, Tainer JA, Siddique T: The D90A mutation results in a polymorphism of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase that is prevalent in northern Sweden and Finland. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun;4(6):1105-8. [PubMed:7655469 ]
  45. Deng HX, Tainer JA, Mitsumoto H, Ohnishi A, He X, Hung WY, Zhao Y, Juneja T, Hentati A, Siddique T: Two novel SOD1 mutations in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun;4(6):1113-6. [PubMed:7655471 ]
  46. Orrell R, de Belleroche J, Marklund S, Bowe F, Hallewell R: A novel SOD mutant and ALS. Nature. 1995 Apr 6;374(6522):504-5. [PubMed:7700376 ]
  47. Andersen PM, Nilsson P, Ala-Hurula V, Keranen ML, Tarvainen I, Haltia T, Nilsson L, Binzer M, Forsgren L, Marklund SL: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with homozygosity for an Asp90Ala mutation in CuZn-superoxide dismutase. Nat Genet. 1995 May;10(1):61-6. [PubMed:7647793 ]
  48. Ikeda M, Abe K, Aoki M, Sahara M, Watanabe M, Shoji M, St George-Hyslop PH, Hirai S, Itoyama Y: Variable clinical symptoms in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a novel point mutation in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene. Neurology. 1995 Nov;45(11):2038-42. [PubMed:7501156 ]
  49. Sapp PC, Rosen DR, Hosler BA, Esteban J, McKenna-Yasek D, O'Regan JP, Horvitz HR, Brown RH Jr: Identification of three novel mutations in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromuscul Disord. 1995 Sep;5(5):353-7. [PubMed:7496169 ]
  50. Hosler BA, Nicholson GA, Sapp PC, Chin W, Orrell RW, de Belleroche JS, Esteban J, Hayward LJ, Mckenna-Yasek D, Yeung L, Cherryson AK, Dench JE, Wilton SD, Laing NG, Horvitz HR, Brown RH Jr: Three novel mutations and two variants in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromuscul Disord. 1996 Oct;6(5):361-6. [PubMed:8938700 ]
  51. Morita M, Aoki M, Abe K, Hasegawa T, Sakuma R, Onodera Y, Ichikawa N, Nishizawa M, Itoyama Y: A novel two-base mutation in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Feb 23;205(2):79-82. [PubMed:8907321 ]
  52. Watanabe M, Aoki M, Abe K, Shoji M, Iizuka T, Ikeda Y, Hirai S, Kurokawa K, Kato T, Sasaki H, Itoyama Y: A novel missense point mutation (S134N) of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in a patient with familial motor neuron disease. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(1):69-71. [PubMed:8990014 ]
  53. Kawamata J, Shimohama S, Takano S, Harada K, Ueda K, Kimura J: Novel G16S (GGC-AGC) mutation in the SOD-1 gene in a patient with apparently sporadic young-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(4):356-8. [PubMed:9101297 ]
  54. Orrell RW, Marklund SL, deBelleroche JS: Familial ALS is associated with mutations in all exons of SOD1: a novel mutation in exon 3 (Gly72Ser). J Neurol Sci. 1997 Dec 9;153(1):46-9. [PubMed:9455977 ]
  55. Kikugawa K, Nakano R, Inuzuka T, Kokubo Y, Narita Y, Kuzuhara S, Yoshida S, Tsuji S: A missense mutation in the SOD1 gene in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from the Kii Peninsula and its vicinity, Japan. Neurogenetics. 1997 Sep;1(2):113-5. [PubMed:10732812 ]
  56. Bereznai B, Winkler A, Borasio GD, Gasser T: A novel SOD1 mutation in an Austrian family with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromuscul Disord. 1997 Mar;7(2):113-6. [PubMed:9131652 ]
  57. Ratovitski T, Corson LB, Strain J, Wong P, Cleveland DW, Culotta VC, Borchelt DR: Variation in the biochemical/biophysical properties of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 enzymes and the rate of disease progression in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis kindreds. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Aug;8(8):1451-60. [PubMed:10400992 ]
  58. Penco S, Schenone A, Bordo D, Bolognesi M, Abbruzzese M, Bugiani O, Ajmar F, Garre C: A SOD1 gene mutation in a patient with slowly progressing familial ALS. Neurology. 1999 Jul 22;53(2):404-6. [PubMed:10430435 ]
  59. Murakami T, Warita H, Hayashi T, Sato K, Manabe Y, Mizuno S, Yamane K, Abe K: A novel SOD1 gene mutation in familial ALS with low penetrance in females. J Neurol Sci. 2001 Aug 15;189(1-2):45-7. [PubMed:11535232 ]
  60. Gellera C, Castellotti B, Riggio MC, Silani V, Morandi L, Testa D, Casali C, Taroni F, Di Donato S, Zeviani M, Mariotti C: Superoxide dismutase gene mutations in Italian patients with familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: identification of three novel missense mutations. Neuromuscul Disord. 2001 May;11(4):404-10. [PubMed:11369193 ]
  61. Alexander MD, Traynor BJ, Miller N, Corr B, Frost E, McQuaid S, Brett FM, Green A, Hardiman O: "True" sporadic ALS associated with a novel SOD-1 mutation. Ann Neurol. 2002 Nov;52(5):680-3. [PubMed:12402272 ]
  62. Niwa J, Ishigaki S, Hishikawa N, Yamamoto M, Doyu M, Murata S, Tanaka K, Taniguchi N, Sobue G: Dorfin ubiquitylates mutant SOD1 and prevents mutant SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 27;277(39):36793-8. Epub 2002 Jul 26. [PubMed:12145308 ]
  63. Andersen PM, Sims KB, Xin WW, Kiely R, O'Neill G, Ravits J, Pioro E, Harati Y, Brower RD, Levine JS, Heinicke HU, Seltzer W, Boss M, Brown RH Jr: Sixteen novel mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a decade of discoveries, defects and disputes. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2003 Jun;4(2):62-73. [PubMed:14506936 ]
  64. Furukawa Y, Kaneko K, Yamanaka K, O'Halloran TV, Nukina N: Complete loss of post-translational modifications triggers fibrillar aggregation of SOD1 in the familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 29;283(35):24167-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802083200. Epub 2008 Jun 13. [PubMed:18552350 ]
  65. Banci L, Bertini I, Boca M, Girotto S, Martinelli M, Valentine JS, Vieru M: SOD1 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: mutations and oligomerization. PLoS One. 2008 Feb 27;3(2):e1677. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001677. [PubMed:18301754 ]
  66. Yonashiro R, Sugiura A, Miyachi M, Fukuda T, Matsushita N, Inatome R, Ogata Y, Suzuki T, Dohmae N, Yanagi S: Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL ubiquitinates mutant SOD1 and attenuates mutant SOD1-induced reactive oxygen species generation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Nov;20(21):4524-30. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E09-02-0112. Epub 2009 Sep 9. [PubMed:19741096 ]