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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP02286
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 7771
Name Protein S100-A9
Synonyms
  1. Calgranulin-B
  2. Calprotectin L1H subunit
  3. Leukocyte L1 complex heavy chain
  4. MRP-14
  5. Migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14
  6. S100 calcium-binding protein A9
  7. p14
Gene Name S100A9
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific Function Calcium-binding protein. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi. Important for resistance to invasion by pathogenic bacteria. Up-regulates transcription of genes that are under the control of NF-kappa-B. Plays a role in the development of endotoxic shock in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Promotes tubulin polymerization when unphosphorylated. Promotes phagocyte migration and infiltration of granulocytes at sites of wounding. Plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation and up-regulates the release of IL8 and cell-surface expression of ICAM1. Extracellular calprotectin binds to target cells and promotes apoptosis. Antimicrobial and proapoptotic activity is inhibited by zinc ions
Pathways Not Available
Reactions Not Available
GO Classification
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
calcium ion binding
Cellular Location
  1. Cell membrane
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Cytoplasm
  4. Peripheral membrane protein
  5. Secreted
  6. cytoskeleton
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Locus 1q21
SNPs S100A9
Gene Sequence
>345 bp
ATGACTTGCAAAATGTCGCAGCTGGAACGCAACATAGAGACCATCATCAACACCTTCCAC
CAATACTCTGTGAAGCTGGGGCACCCAGACACCCTGAACCAGGGGGAATTCAAAGAGCTG
GTGCGAAAAGATCTGCAAAATTTTCTCAAGAAGGAGAATAAGAATGAAAAGGTCATAGAA
CACATCATGGAGGACCTGGACACAAATGCAGACAAGCAGCTGAGCTTCGAGGAGTTCATC
ATGCTGATGGCGAGGCTAACCTGGGCCTCCCACGAGAAGATGCACGAGGGTGACGAGGGC
CCTGGCCACCACCATAAGCCAGGCCTCGGGGAGGGCACCCCCTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 114
Molecular Weight 13242.0
Theoretical pI 6.08
Pfam Domain Function
Signals
  • None
Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Protein Sequence
>Protein S100-A9
MTCKMSQLERNIETIINTFHQYSVKLGHPDTLNQGEFKELVRKDLQNFLKKENKNEKVIE
HIMEDLDTNADKQLSFEEFIMLMARLTWASHEKMHEGDEGPGHHHKPGLGEGTP
GenBank ID Protein 34771
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P06702
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name S10A9_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X06233
GeneCard ID S100A9
GenAtlas ID S100A9
HGNC ID HGNC:10499
References
General References
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  4. Han G, Ye M, Zhou H, Jiang X, Feng S, Jiang X, Tian R, Wan D, Zou H, Gu J: Large-scale phosphoproteome analysis of human liver tissue by enrichment and fractionation of phosphopeptides with strong anion exchange chromatography. Proteomics. 2008 Apr;8(7):1346-61. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200700884. [PubMed:18318008 ]
  5. Rasmussen HH, van Damme J, Puype M, Gesser B, Celis JE, Vandekerckhove J: Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Electrophoresis. 1992 Dec;13(12):960-9. [PubMed:1286667 ]
  6. Carrascal M, Ovelleiro D, Casas V, Gay M, Abian J: Phosphorylation analysis of primary human T lymphocytes using sequential IMAC and titanium oxide enrichment. J Proteome Res. 2008 Dec;7(12):5167-76. [PubMed:19367720 ]
  7. Odink K, Cerletti N, Bruggen J, Clerc RG, Tarcsay L, Zwadlo G, Gerhards G, Schlegel R, Sorg C: Two calcium-binding proteins in infiltrate macrophages of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature. 1987 Nov 5-11;330(6143):80-2. [PubMed:3313057 ]
  8. Lagasse E, Clerc RG: Cloning and expression of two human genes encoding calcium-binding proteins that are regulated during myeloid differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jun;8(6):2402-10. [PubMed:3405210 ]
  9. Miyasaki KT, Bodeau AL, Murthy AR, Lehrer RI: In vitro antimicrobial activity of the human neutrophil cytosolic S-100 protein complex, calprotectin, against Capnocytophaga sputigena. J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;72(2):517-23. [PubMed:8423249 ]
  10. Rammes A, Roth J, Goebeler M, Klempt M, Hartmann M, Sorg C: Myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8 and MRP14, calcium-binding proteins of the S100 family, are secreted by activated monocytes via a novel, tubulin-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 1997 Apr 4;272(14):9496-502. [PubMed:9083090 ]
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  13. Nakatani Y, Yamazaki M, Chazin WJ, Yui S: Regulation of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) binding to tumor cells by zinc ion and its implication for apoptosis-inducing activity. Mediators Inflamm. 2005 Oct 24;2005(5):280-92. [PubMed:16258195 ]
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  15. Sroussi HY, Kohler GA, Agabian N, Villines D, Palefsky JM: Substitution of methionine 63 or 83 in S100A9 and cysteine 42 in S100A8 abrogate the antifungal activities of S100A8/A9: potential role for oxidative regulation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Jan;55(1):55-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00498.x. Epub 2008 Dec 11. [PubMed:19087201 ]
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  17. Korndorfer IP, Brueckner F, Skerra A: The crystal structure of the human (S100A8/S100A9)2 heterotetramer, calprotectin, illustrates how conformational changes of interacting alpha-helices can determine specific association of two EF-hand proteins. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):887-98. Epub 2007 May 3. [PubMed:17553524 ]
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  21. Streichert T, Ebrahimnejad A, Ganzer S, Flayeh R, Wagener C, Brummer J: The microbial receptor CEACAM3 is linked to the calprotectin complex in granulocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 23;289(1):191-7. [PubMed:11708798 ]
  22. Bjork P, Bjork A, Vogl T, Stenstrom M, Liberg D, Olsson A, Roth J, Ivars F, Leanderson T: Identification of human S100A9 as a novel target for treatment of autoimmune disease via binding to quinoline-3-carboxamides. PLoS Biol. 2009 Apr 28;7(4):e97. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000097. [PubMed:19402754 ]
  23. Itou H, Yao M, Fujita I, Watanabe N, Suzuki M, Nishihira J, Tanaka I: The crystal structure of human MRP14 (S100A9), a Ca(2+)-dependent regulator protein in inflammatory process. J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 15;316(2):265-76. [PubMed:11851337 ]