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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP08259
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 13971
Name Very long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. VLCAD
Gene Name ACADVL
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function Active toward esters of long-chain and very long chain fatty acids such as palmitoyl-CoA, mysritoyl-CoA and stearoyl-CoA. Can accommodate substrate acyl chain lengths as long as 24 carbons, but shows little activity for substrates of less than 12 carbons.
Pathways
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)
  • Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy
  • Fatty acid Metabolism
  • fatty acid metabolism
  • Glutaric Aciduria Type I
  • Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)
  • Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)
  • Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty Acids
  • mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation
  • Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)
  • Trifunctional protein deficiency
  • Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)
Reactions
A very-long-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein → a very-long-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein details
hexadecanoyl-CoA + FAD → (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA + FADH details
GO Classification
Biological Process
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process
negative regulation of fatty acid oxidation
regulation of cholesterol metabolic process
temperature homeostasis
activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response
energy derivation by oxidation of organic compounds
very long-chain fatty acid catabolic process
Cellular Component
mitochondrial nucleoid
mitochondrial inner membrane
Function
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors
acyl-coa dehydrogenase activity
binding
catalytic activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
oxidoreductase activity
fad or fadh2 binding
Molecular Function
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
fatty-acyl-CoA binding
long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion inner membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 17
Locus 17p13.1
SNPs ACADVL
Gene Sequence
>1968 bp
ATGCAGGCGGCTCGGATGGCCGCGAGCTTGGGGCGGCAGCTGCTGAGGCTCGGGGGCGGA
AGCTCGCGGCTCACGGCGCTCCTGGGGCAGCCCCGGCCCGGCCCTGCCCGGCGGCCCTAT
GCCGGGGGTGCCGCTCAGCTGGCTCTGGACAAGTCAGATTCCCACCCCTCTGACGCTCTG
ACCAGGAAAAAACCGGCCAAGGCGGAATCTAAGTCCTTTGCTGTGGGAATGTTCAAAGGC
CAGCTCACCACAGATCAGGTGTTCCCATACCCGTCCGTGCTCAACGAAGAGCAGACACAG
TTTCTTAAAGAGCTGGTGGAGCCTGTGTCCCGTTTCTTCGAGGAAGTGAACGATCCCGCC
AAGAATGACGCTCTGGAGATGGTGGAGGAGACCACTTGGCAGGGCCTCAAGGAGCTGGGG
GCCTTTGGTCTGCAAGTGCCCAGTGAGCTGGGTGGTGTGGGCCTTTGCAACACCCAGTAC
GCCCGTTTGGTGGAGATCGTGGGCATGCATGACCTTGGCGTGGGCATTACCCTGGGGGCC
CATCAGAGCATCGGTTTCAAAGGCATCCTGCTCTTTGGCACAAAGGCCCAGAAAGAAAAA
TACCTCCCCAAGCTGGCATCTGGGGAGACTGTGGCCGCTTTCTGTCTAACCGAGCCCTCA
AGCGGGTCAGATGCAGCCTCCATCCGAACCTCTGCTGTGCCCAGCCCCTGTGGAAAATAC
TATACCCTCAATGGAAGCAAGCTTTGGATCAGTAATGGGGGCCTAGCAGACATCTTCACG
GTCTTTGCCAAGACACCAGTTACAGATCCAGCCACAGGAGCCGTGAAGGAGAAGATCACA
GCTTTTGTGGTGGAGAGGGGCTTCGGGGGCATTACCCATGGGCCCCCTGAGAAGAAGATG
GGCATCAAGGCTTCAAACACAGCAGAGGTGTTCTTTGATGGAGTACGGGTGCCATCGGAG
AACGTGCTGGGTGAGGTTGGGAGTGGCTTCAAGGTTGCCATGCACATCCTCAACAATGGA
AGGTTTGGCATGGCTGCGGCCCTGGCAGGTACCATGAGAGGCATCATTGCTAAGGCGGTA
GATCATGCCACTAATCGTACCCAGTTTGGGGAGAAAATTCACAACTTTGGGCTGATCCAG
GAGAAGCTGGCACGGATGGTTATGCTGCAGTATGTAACTGAGTCCATGGCTTACATGGTG
AGTGCTAACATGGACCAGGGAGCCACGGACTTCCAGATAGAGGCCGCCATCAGCAAAATC
TTTGGCTCGGAGGCAGCCTGGAAGGTGACAGATGAATGCATCCAAATCATGGGGGGTATG
GGCTTCATGAAGGAACCTGGAGTAGAGCGTGTGCTCCGAGATCTTCGCATCTTCCGGATC
TTTGAGGGGACAAATGACATTCTTCGGCTGTTTGTGGCTCTGCAGGGCTGTATGGACAAA
GGAAAGGAGCTCTCTGGGCTTGGCAGTGCTCTAAAGAATCCCTTTGGGAATGCTGGCCTC
CTGCTAGGAGAGGCAGGCAAACAGCTGAGGCGGCGGGCAGGGCTGGGCAGCGGCCTGAGT
CTCAGCGGACTTGTCCACCCGGAGTTGAGTCGGAGTGGCGAGCTGGCAGTACGGGCTCTG
GAGCAGTTTGCCACTGTGGTGGAGGCCAAGCTGATAAAACACAAGAAGGGGATTGTCAAT
GAACAGTTTCTGCTGCAGCGGCTGGCAGACGGGGCCATCGACCTCTATGCCATGGTGGTG
GTTCTCTCGAGGGCCTCAAGATCCCTGAGTGAGGGCCACCCCACGGCCCAGCATGAGAAA
ATGCTCTGTGACACCTGGTGTATCGAGGCTGCAGCTCGGATCCGAGAGGGCATGGCCGCC
CTGCAGTCTGACCCCTGGCAGCAAGAGCTCTACCGCAACTTCAAAAGCATCTCCAAGGCC
TTGGTGGAGCGGGGTGGTGTGGTCACCAGCAACCCACTTGGCTTCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 655
Molecular Weight 70389.58
Theoretical pI 8.755
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Very long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
MQAARMAASLGRQLLRLGGGSSRLTALLGQPRPGPARRPYAGGAAQLALDKSDSHPSDAL
TRKKPAKAESKSFAVGMFKGQLTTDQVFPYPSVLNEEQTQFLKELVEPVSRFFEEVNDPA
KNDALEMVEETTWQGLKELGAFGLQVPSELGGVGLCNTQYARLVEIVGMHDLGVGITLGA
HQSIGFKGILLFGTKAQKEKYLPKLASGETVAAFCLTEPSSGSDAASIRTSAVPSPCGKY
YTLNGSKLWISNGGLADIFTVFAKTPVTDPATGAVKEKITAFVVERGFGGITHGPPEKKM
GIKASNTAEVFFDGVRVPSENVLGEVGSGFKVAMHILNNGRFGMAAALAGTMRGIIAKAV
DHATNRTQFGEKIHNFGLIQEKLARMVMLQYVTESMAYMVSANMDQGATDFQIEAAISKI
FGSEAAWKVTDECIQIMGGMGFMKEPGVERVLRDLRIFRIFEGTNDILRLFVALQGCMDK
GKELSGLGSALKNPFGNAGLLLGEAGKQLRRRAGLGSGLSLSGLVHPELSRSGELAVRAL
EQFATVVEAKLIKHKKGIVNEQFLLQRLADGAIDLYAMVVVLSRASRSLSEGHPTAQHEK
MLCDTWCIEAAARIREGMAALQSDPWQQELYRNFKSISKALVERGGVVTSNPLGF
GenBank ID Protein 12653261
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P49748
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ACADV_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID BC000399
GeneCard ID ACADVL
GenAtlas ID ACADVL
HGNC ID HGNC:92
References
General References
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  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Aoyama T, Souri M, Ueno I, Kamijo T, Yamaguchi S, Rhead WJ, Tanaka K, Hashimoto T: Cloning of human very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and molecular characterization of its deficiency in two patients. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Aug;57(2):273-83. [PubMed:7668252 ]
  4. Andresen BS, Bross P, Vianey-Saban C, Divry P, Zabot MT, Roe CR, Nada MA, Byskov A, Kruse TA, Neve S, Kristiansen K, Knudsen I, Corydon MJ, Gregersen N: Cloning and characterization of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA, chromosomal assignment of the gene and identification in four patients of nine different mutations within the VLCAD gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Apr;5(4):461-72. [PubMed:8845838 ]
  5. Orii KO, Aoyama T, Souri M, Orii KE, Kondo N, Orii T, Hashimoto T: Genomic DNA organization of human mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mutation analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Dec 26;217(3):987-92. [PubMed:8554625 ]
  6. Aoyama T, Souri M, Ushikubo S, Kamijo T, Yamaguchi S, Kelley RI, Rhead WJ, Uetake K, Tanaka K, Hashimoto T: Purification of human very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and characterization of its deficiency in seven patients. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jun;95(6):2465-73. [PubMed:7769092 ]
  7. Andresen BS, Olpin S, Poorthuis BJ, Scholte HR, Vianey-Saban C, Wanders R, Ijlst L, Morris A, Pourfarzam M, Bartlett K, Baumgartner ER, deKlerk JB, Schroeder LD, Corydon TJ, Lund H, Winter V, Bross P, Bolund L, Gregersen N: Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Feb;64(2):479-94. [PubMed:9973285 ]
  8. McAndrew RP, Wang Y, Mohsen AW, He M, Vockley J, Kim JJ: Structural basis for substrate fatty acyl chain specificity: crystal structure of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 4;283(14):9435-43. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M709135200. Epub 2008 Jan 28. [PubMed:18227065 ]
  9. Souri M, Aoyama T, Orii K, Yamaguchi S, Hashimoto T: Mutation analysis of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency: identification and characterization of mutant VLCAD cDNAs from four patients. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Jan;58(1):97-106. [PubMed:8554073 ]
  10. Smelt AH, Poorthuis BJ, Onkenhout W, Scholte HR, Andresen BS, van Duinen SG, Gregersen N, Wintzen AR: Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset. Ann Neurol. 1998 Apr;43(4):540-4. [PubMed:9546340 ]
  11. Mathur A, Sims HF, Gopalakrishnan D, Gibson B, Rinaldo P, Vockley J, Hug G, Strauss AW: Molecular heterogeneity in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency causing pediatric cardiomyopathy and sudden death. Circulation. 1999 Mar 16;99(10):1337-43. [PubMed:10077518 ]