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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-03-14 17:59:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000089
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00089
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCytidine
DescriptionCytidine is a nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose. Cytidine is a pyrimidine that besides being incorporated into nucleic acids, can serve as a substrate for the salvage pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. It is a precursor of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) needed in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthetic pathways. These variations probably reflect the species differences in cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that converts cytidine to uridine in the body. The transport of cytidine into the brain's extracellular fluid, and then into neurons and glia, are essential prerequisites for cytidine to be utilized in the brain. An efficient mechanism mediating the brain uptake of circulating cytidine has not yet been demonstrated. The biosynthesis of PC, the most abundant phosphatide in the brain, via the Kennedy pathway requires phosphocholine and cytidine triphosphate (CTP), a cytidine nucleotide involved in the rate-limiting step. The enzyme that converts CTP to endogenous CDP-choline (CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) is unsaturated at physiological brain CTP levels. APOBEC is a family of enzymes that has been discovered with the ability to deaminate cytidines on RNA or DNA. The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G protein (APOBEC3G, or hA3G), provides cells with an intracellular antiretroviral activity that is associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytidine deamination. Indeed, hA3G belongs to a family of vertebrate proteins that contains one or two copies of a signature sequence motif unique to cytidine deaminases (CTDAs) (PMID: 16769123 , 15780864 , 16720547 ).
Structure
Data?1550698894
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-beta-D-RibofuranosylcytosineChEBI
1beta-D-RibofuranosylcytosineChEBI
4-AMINO-1-BETA-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneChEBI
4-Amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneChEBI
4-Amino-1beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneChEBI
CydChEBI
CytidinChEBI
Cytosine ribosideChEBI
Cytosine-1beta-D-ribofuranosideChEBI
ZytidinChEBI
PosilentKegg
1-b-D-RibofuranosylcytosineGenerator
1-Β-D-ribofuranosylcytosineGenerator
1b-D-RibofuranosylcytosineGenerator
1Β-D-ribofuranosylcytosineGenerator
4-AMINO-1-b-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
4-AMINO-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
4-Amino-1-b-D-ribofuranosylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneGenerator
4-Amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneGenerator
4-Amino-1b-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
4-Amino-1β-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
Cytosine-1b-D-ribofuranosideGenerator
Cytosine-1β-D-ribofuranosideGenerator
1-(b-D-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
1-(b-delta-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
1-b-D-Ribosyl-cytosineHMDB
1-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-cytosineHMDB
1-beta-delta-Ribofuranosyl-cytosineHMDB
1-beta-delta-RibofuranosylcytosineHMDB
1-beta-delta-Ribosyl-cytosineHMDB
1beta-delta-RibofuranosylcytosineHMDB
1beta-RibofuranosylcytosineHMDB
4-Amino-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneHMDB
Cytosine-1b-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Cytosine-1beta-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Cytosine ribonucleosideHMDB
Ribonucleoside, cytosineHMDB
Riboside, cytosineHMDB
1-(beta-D-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
1-(Β-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H13N3O5
Average Molecular Weight243.2166
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight243.085520541
IUPAC Name4-amino-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one
Traditional Namecytidine
CAS Registry Number65-46-3
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)N(C=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13N3O5/c10-5-1-2-12(9(16)11-5)8-7(15)6(14)4(3-13)17-8/h1-2,4,6-8,13-15H,3H2,(H2,10,11,16)/t4-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1
InChI KeyUHDGCWIWMRVCDJ-XVFCMESISA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidine nucleosides. Pyrimidine nucleosides are compounds comprising a pyrimidine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPyrimidine nucleosides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPyrimidine nucleosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidine nucleoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point230.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-2.51HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility43.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.55ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.062ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area128.61 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity54.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0zfr-2951000000-7baf0e1ea8b1a34362e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0g4j-2980000000-9337623aef7fec22dd97JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0zfr-2951000000-7baf0e1ea8b1a34362e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0g4j-2980000000-9337623aef7fec22dd97JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05dl-9420000000-f2b3f5707444409e125dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0083-6964300000-64e7e138ddd30a0aec2cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-177050786fcbfaf2d270JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-1251248af66dca3401e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-6900000000-c6b010a1d3e65a0942eeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0590100000-94eb2baae24aa405b1baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8155621584c25975ffa1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-5065bc83a32bee37d07cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0590200000-4d5dc5376c40d083efbeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-6ea86f62a48910b456a0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-5c93b66b8899a4d3ce06JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f0e6ac0bacdbef1206b0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000f-0090010000-1cf915fa4dfb86b5861bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-6bb7990f165932decea7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-0b7dc368d61ee31afb78JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000l-0090020000-fa04fb11f98259c403b6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0190172001-0671df3c315b8af9e13fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-8aa3fec051a7d9807888JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-0563823e8f3a9def519aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0028900000-f4b6c319a7e9fb17df2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-01ox-0590000000-d5d20f84ab30e96c30f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-03di-0930000000-c4d3377790616b8b7869JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-1930000000-faec28788ea577988b82JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0910000000-9575881412c4c94a7eaeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-5900000000-2cb5f7e3dbd7baa35b56JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dj-9600000000-7d281b2b2d57c8786e11JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-01ox-0960000000-db9207082a1fabf42daeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.25 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified5.14 +/- 3.49 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified3.4 +/- 1.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.32 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.45 +/- 0.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.05 +/- 0.828 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0683 +/- 0.0749 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0683 +/- 0.0749 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0787 +/- 0.0807 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0886 +/- 0.0760 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.123 +/- 0.0900 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.125 +/- 0.0812 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.132 +/- 0.0808 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.237 +/- 0.184 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.78 (0.00-1.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 +/- 0.05 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.08 +/- 0.06 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 +/- 0.05 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.50 +/- 1.34 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.12 +/- 0.69 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.33 +/- 0.17 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.26 +/- 0.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0795 +/- 0.0643 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTooth alignment disorders
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.39 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.48 +/- 0.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.22 +/- 0.17 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.03 +/- 1.77 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02097
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021809
KNApSAcK IDC00042440
Chemspider ID5940
KEGG Compound IDC00475
BioCyc IDCYTIDINE
BiGG ID35089
Wikipedia LinkCytidine
METLIN ID3376
PubChem Compound6175
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17562
References
Synthesis ReferenceQu, Guirong; Yang, Xining; Shen, Yanhong; Dong, Chunhong; Guo, Haiming; Wang, Xiuqiang; Wang, Dongchao. Synthesis of cytidine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 11pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  3. Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Chung BC: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of nucleosides in human urine using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with direct urine injection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(9):973-7. [PubMed:15116424 ]
  4. Mahieux R, Suspene R, Delebecque F, Henry M, Schwartz O, Wain-Hobson S, Vartanian JP: Extensive editing of a small fraction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 genomes by four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. J Gen Virol. 2005 Sep;86(Pt 9):2489-94. [PubMed:16099907 ]
  5. Schrofelbauer B, Yu Q, Zeitlin SG, Landau NR: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces the degradation of the UNG and SMUG uracil-DNA glycosylases. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(17):10978-87. [PubMed:16103149 ]
  6. Min IM, Selsing E: Antibody class switch recombination: roles for switch sequences and mismatch repair proteins. Adv Immunol. 2005;87:297-328. [PubMed:16102577 ]
  7. Zhong SQ, Sun LJ, Yan YZ, Sun YQ, Zhong YY: Effect of Xuesaitong soft capsule on hemorrheology and in auxiliarily treating patients with acute cerebral infarction. Chin J Integr Med. 2005 Jun;11(2):128-31. [PubMed:16150200 ]
  8. Barbour JD, Grant RM: The role of viral fitness in HIV pathogenesis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2005 Feb;2(1):29-34. [PubMed:16091246 ]
  9. Cansev M: Uridine and cytidine in the brain: their transport and utilization. Brain Res Rev. 2006 Sep;52(2):389-97. [PubMed:16769123 ]
  10. Huthoff H, Malim MH: Cytidine deamination and resistance to retroviral infection: towards a structural understanding of the APOBEC proteins. Virology. 2005 Apr 10;334(2):147-53. [PubMed:15780864 ]
  11. Navaratnam N, Sarwar R: An overview of cytidine deaminases. Int J Hematol. 2006 Apr;83(3):195-200. [PubMed:16720547 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 22 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA47
Molecular weight:
22760.43
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → ADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Uridine triphosphate + Cytidine → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Cytidine → Guanosine diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → dADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Thymidine 5'-triphosphate + Cytidine → dTDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dCTP + Cytidine → dCDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyuridine triphosphate + Cytidine → dUDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Regulates and initiates biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. Plays an essential role in early development (By similarity). Required for normal sialylation in hematopoietic cells. Sialylation is implicated in cell adhesion, signal transduction, tumorigenicity and metastatic behavior of malignant cells.
Gene Name:
GNE
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y223
Molecular weight:
83065.25
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZX2
Molecular weight:
29298.92
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → ADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Uridine triphosphate + Cytidine → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Cytidine → Guanosine diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → dADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Thymidine 5'-triphosphate + Cytidine → dTDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dCTP + Cytidine → dCDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyuridine triphosphate + Cytidine → dUDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AID
Uniprot ID:
Q546Y9
Molecular weight:
23953.3
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Can act both as nucleotidase and as phosphotransferase.
Gene Name:
NT5C3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H0P0
Molecular weight:
33914.91
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 22 proteins in total.