You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:43:56 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00176
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMaleic acid
DescriptionMaleic acid is an industrial raw material for the production of glyoxylic acid by ozonolysis. Maleic acid is an organic compound which is a dicarboxylic acid (molecule with two carboxyl groups). The molecule consists of an ethylene group flanked by two carboxylic acid groups. Maleic acid is the cis isomer of butenedioic acid, whereas fumaric acid is the trans isomer. The cis isomer is the less stable one of the two; the difference in heat of combustion is 22.7 kJ/mol. The physical properties of maleic acid are very different from that of fumaric acid. Maleic acid is soluble in water whereas fumaric acid is not and the melting point of maleic acid (130 - 131 degree centigrade) is also much lower than that of fumaric acid (287 degree centigrade). Both properties of maleic acid can be explained on account of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that takes place at the expense of intermolecular interactions. Maleic acid is converted into maleic anhydride by dehydration, to malic acid by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation. It reacts with thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride to give the maleic acid chloride (it is not possible to isolate the mono acid chloride). Maleic acid is a reactant in many Diels-Alder reactions.
(Z)-2-Butenedioic acidChEBI
(Z)-Butenedioic acidChEBI
cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
cis-But-2-enedioic acidChEBI
cis-Butenedioic acidChEBI
Toxilic acidChEBI
(2Z)-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-But-2-enedioic acidHMDB
(2Z)-Butene-2-dioic acidHMDB
2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
cis-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
Kyselina maleinovaHMDB
Maleinic acidHMDB
Malenic acidHMDB
Malezid CMHMDB
Scotchbond multipurpose etchantHMDB
Maleic acid, disodium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, monocopper (2+) saltMeSH
Maleic acid, potassium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, sodium saltMeSH
Sodium maleateMeSH
Hydrogen maleateMeSH
Maleic acid, ammonium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, calcium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, iron saltMeSH
Maleic acid, neodymium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, dipotassium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, monoammonium saltMeSH
Maleic acid, monosodium saltMeSH
Chemical FormulaC4H4O4
Average Molecular Weight116.0722
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.010958616
IUPAC Name(2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
Traditional Namemaleic acid
CAS Registry Number110-16-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point130.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility441 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.48SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility24.1 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-170a9d63d0cb31451c1dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001j-5940000000-59e85bafafc1675e24adJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxs-9000000000-d768b92d45a58ec32ec7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-617284552377852c7c46JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0910000000-15f30f525d5ea74dc9d4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-170a9d63d0cb31451c1dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-5940000000-59e85bafafc1675e24adJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-4b46518e6c4f0c6724f2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01ba-9200000000-52f88e04bac0ff8cdf17JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8920000000-06da44f348d0fe0358b3JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9200000000-77d8b2c7abcec2e3d5a1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9200000000-8d8a8b14a723e0363227JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0229-9700000000-061b31801a2ae4703fc5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0uxs-9000000000-d768b92d45a58ec32ec7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-6bbe33cf398e663af0fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-550ee9efb3babd781bcaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-18e922c569242e2111e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f344fe84d76f2bf06f91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00fu-9000000000-6f90988f5d68f87b52d2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00di-9400000000-99bc7f4db87479b4122aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-6bbe33cf398e663af0fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-550ee9efb3babd781bcaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-18e922c569242e2111e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f344fe84d76f2bf06f91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00fu-9000000000-6f90988f5d68f87b52d2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-00di-9400000000-99bc7f4db87479b4122aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014j-9800000000-dbf34563376daeb2901fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00xs-9200000000-113bf08cdc77707ed3adJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00fr-9000000000-f32d7ec65e8649bc2b0aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-408d53a9fff7acc8ca23JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-6900000000-f149e9e5a34e27dd4d4eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fxt-9000000000-cae5f71dc27daaf17d9eJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    UrineDetected and Quantified5.447 +/- 6.8 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.7 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.7 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.4 (0.3-0.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.585 +/- 1.123 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
    1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB04299
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB008113
    KNApSAcK IDC00007417
    Chemspider IDNot Available
    KEGG Compound IDC01384
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkMaleic_acid
    METLIN IDNot Available
    PubChem Compound444266
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID18300
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    Synthesis ReferenceDethloff, Christian; Barbarino, Sergio. Process temperature optimization in the manufacture of maleic acid by the hydrolysis of maleic anhydride. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1998), 7 pp.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Kotikoski H, Oksala O, Vapaatalo H, Aine E: Aqueous humour flow after a single oral dose of isosorbide-5-mononitrate in healthy volunteers. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Aug;81(4):355-60. [PubMed:12859262 ]
    2. Herreras JM, Pastor JC, Calonge M, Asensio VM: Ocular surface alteration after long-term treatment with an antiglaucomatous drug. Ophthalmology. 1992 Jul;99(7):1082-8. [PubMed:1495787 ]
    3. Klose T, Welzel PB, Werner C: Protein adsorption from flowing solutions on pure and maleic acid copolymer modified glass particles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006 Aug 1;51(1):1-9. Epub 2006 May 17. [PubMed:16797943 ]
    4. Renner L, Pompe T, Salchert K, Werner C: Dynamic alterations of fibronectin layers on copolymer substrates with graded physicochemical characteristics. Langmuir. 2004 Mar 30;20(7):2928-33. [PubMed:15835174 ]
    5. Gong Z, Lv Y, Huang Y, Zhang Z: Determination of ergometrine maleate by fluorescence detection. Luminescence. 2005 May-Jun;20(3):124-8. [PubMed:15924314 ]
    6. Goes MF, Sinhoreti MA, Consani S, Silva MA: Morphological effect of the type, concentration and etching time of acid solutions on enamel and dentin surfaces. Braz Dent J. 1998;9(1):3-10. [PubMed:9835798 ]
    7. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
    8. Gallagher RM: Menstrual migraine and intermittent ergonovine therapy. Headache. 1989 Jun;29(6):366-7. [PubMed:2759844 ]
    9. Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T, Imamura M, Tamai T, Nishimura A, Yamashiki N, Okamura A, Inoue K: Hepatic infarction following percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Nov;10(11):915-8. [PubMed:9872612 ]
    10. Snider BJ, Moss JL, Revilla FJ, Lee CS, Wheeler VC, Macdonald ME, Choi DW: Neocortical neurons cultured from mice with expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene: unaltered vulnerability to excitotoxins and other insults. Neuroscience. 2003;120(3):617-25. [PubMed:12895502 ]
    11. Lavit M, Saivin S, Boudra H, Michel F, Martin A, Cahiez G, Labaune JP, Chomard JM, Houin G: Determination of trimebutine and desmethyl-trimebutine in human plasma by HPLC. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000 Jul;50(7):640-4. [PubMed:10965422 ]
    12. Strasser G, Grabner G: The influence of long-term treatment with timolol on human tear lysozyme albumin content. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1982;218(2):93-5. [PubMed:7075967 ]
    13. Glazunova OO, Korepanova EA, Efimov VS, Smirnov AI, Vladimirov YuA: A synthetic polycation, a copolymer of 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazole iodide with maleic acid diethyl ester, increases passive ionic permeability in erythrocyte membranes modified by fatty acids. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(3):401-9. [PubMed:10024972 ]
    14. Yoshida H, Onda M, Tajiri T, Uchida E, Arima Y, Mamada Y, Yamamoto K, Kaneko M, Terada Y, Kumazaki T: Experience with intraarterial infusion of styrene maleic acid neocarzinostatin (SMANCS)-lipiodol in pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999 Jul-Aug;46(28):2612-5. [PubMed:10522050 ]
    15. Benderli Y, Gokce K, Buyukgokcesu S: In vitro shear bond strength of adhesive to normal and fluoridated enamel under various contaminated conditions. Quintessence Int. 1999 Aug;30(8):570-5. [PubMed:10635272 ]
    16. Liu Y, Yanai R, Lu Y, Hirano S, Sagara T, Nishida T: Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on collagen gel contraction mediated by human corneal fibroblasts. J Glaucoma. 2006 Jun;15(3):255-9. [PubMed:16778650 ]
    17. Dorr J, Roth K, Zurbuchen U, Deisz R, Bechmann I, Lehmann TN, Meier S, Nitsch R, Zipp F: Tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing-ligand (TRAIL)-mediated death of neurons in living human brain tissue is inhibited by flupirtine-maleate. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Oct;167(1-2):204-9. [PubMed:16043230 ]
    18. Turcan RG, Hillbeck D, Hartley TE, Gilbert PJ, Coe RA, Troke JA, Vose CW: Disposition of [14C]velnacrine maleate in rats, dogs, and humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1993 Nov-Dec;21(6):1037-47. [PubMed:7905382 ]
    19. Chen CN, Huang GF, Guo MK, Lin CP: An in vitro study on restoring bond strength of a GIC to saliva contaminated enamel under unrinse condition. J Dent. 2002 Jul-Aug;30(5-6):189-94. [PubMed:12450709 ]
    20. Daykin CA, Foxall PJ, Connor SC, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK: The comparison of plasma deproteinization methods for the detection of low-molecular-weight metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 2002 May 15;304(2):220-30. [PubMed:12009699 ]