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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:43:57 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000193
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00193
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIsocitric acid
DescriptionIsocitric acid, also known as isocitrate or i-cit, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tricarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic acids containing exactly three carboxyl groups. Isocitric acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. An isocitric acid value higher than this may be indicative of fruit juice adulteration. Isocitric acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Isocitrate is formed from citrate with the help of the enzyme aconitase, and is acted upon by isocitrate dehydrogenase. Outside of the human body, isocitric acid has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as redcurrants, wild celeries, gooseberries, soursops, and apples. This could make isocitric acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Salts and esters of isocitric acid are known as isocitrates. In authentic orange juice, for example, the ratio of citric acid to D-isocitric acid is usually less than 130. Isocitric acid is a structural isomer of citric acid. The isocitrate anion is a substrate of the citric acid cycle. Isocitric acid is commonly used as a marker to detect the authenticity and quality of fruit products, most often citrus juices.
Structure
Data?1563860637
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acidChEBI
1-Hydroxytricarballylic acidChEBI
1-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylateGenerator
1-HydroxytricarballylateGenerator
IsocitrateGenerator
1-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylateHMDB
1-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acidHMDB
3-Carboxy-2,3-dideoxy-1-hydroxypropan-1,2,3-tricarboxylateHMDB
3-Carboxy-2,3-dideoxy-1-hydroxypropan-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acidHMDB
3-Carboxy-2,3-dideoxy-pentarateHMDB
3-Carboxy-2,3-dideoxy-pentaric acidHMDB
D-IsocitrateHMDB
I-citHMDB
Threo-D(S)-iso-citrateHMDB
Threo-DS-isocitrateHMDB
Isocitric acid, sodium saltHMDB
Isocitric acid, trisodium saltHMDB
Isocitric acid, disodium saltHMDB
Isocitric acid, (11)C-labeledHMDB
Isocitric acid, calcium saltHMDB
Isocitric acid, potassium saltHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H8O7
Average Molecular Weight192.1235
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight192.02700261
IUPAC Name1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
Traditional Nameisocitric acid
CAS Registry Number320-77-4
SMILES
OC(C(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H8O7/c7-3(8)1-2(5(10)11)4(9)6(12)13/h2,4,9H,1H2,(H,7,8)(H,10,11)(H,12,13)
InChI KeyODBLHEXUDAPZAU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tricarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic acids containing exactly three carboxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassTricarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentTricarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point162 - 165 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility466 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility52.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.35ALOGPS
logP-1.4ChemAxon
logS-0.56ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area132.13 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity35.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.55 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0002-1952000000-7c34751686a6bdb54cabJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0002-0963000000-459b45ff9246b5f55914JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0942000000-61204d02a28e43d21607JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00di-9420000000-4e1a59fe735855d52ce2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-00ea-3793000000-84858fa896697420275fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-1952000000-7c34751686a6bdb54cabJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0963000000-459b45ff9246b5f55914JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9420000000-4e1a59fe735855d52ce2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ea-3793000000-84858fa896697420275fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00ba-7900000000-96194d87d52b155cf1b9JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02vi-7029500000-2bb65fc897e48cc21750JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-1900000000-8e1185b0504ea1547715JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05fr-7900000000-0855c1ceb168d556b7f2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0bu1-9500000000-140b46d0f1dc8fcd9e49JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00fu-0940000000-033739944b190c47c6a7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053r-1900000000-89ff897aa220452bfa16JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-36aeb28d857c9039938bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-53373dc0755caa954310JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0901310000-883764bf7b686ca7fd17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-66d03405eeb126c6ad9dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-cdad17a11f419421c787JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-d3440c84a488b3e22212JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-3aa263561a7a49df7d3dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-3636f87026e4206a1638JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-01w3-9600000000-ab1a2b9a29528a623d0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0079-9000000000-3c33cefeb87f85efd5deJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-059m-9000000000-34775db8bbc008018633JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-3aa263561a7a49df7d3dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-3636f87026e4206a1638JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-01w3-9600000000-ab1a2b9a29528a623d0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-a75a4b486df1552d6d93JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0gla-4900000000-d04fec4218cafd6195dfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fk9-8900000000-4e5fbbb415df9fbc8f31JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00ke-1900000000-c364bae4640e201c366dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0v4j-4900000000-d00f263a75673b7981c7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0pk9-9200000000-156693398229f972d717JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Semen
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Gland
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified6.0 (0.0-10.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified38 (23-53) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.17 +/- 1.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.988 +/- 0.531 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.294 +/- 0.267 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.616 +/- 0.351 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.616 +/- 0.351 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SemenDetected and Quantified400 - 1500 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified52.403 +/- 28.756 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified56.8(19.4-119.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified30-57 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified94.3 (29.8-154.4) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified120.1 (101.1-265.3) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified53.7 (31.9-83.1) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.0 (18.0-69.9) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.9 (16.0-118.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.0 (5.0-34.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.7 (5.0-12.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.52 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified58 (36-84) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified46.9 (20.4-89.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.08 (5.26 - 42.76) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.0 +/- 13.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified27-43 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified15 (14.8-15.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.75 +/- 2.89 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.28 +/- 1.43 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.98 +/- 0.15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified90.008 +/- 97.639 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Bladder cancer
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anoxia
  1. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. [PubMed:8579834 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, Schulze BD, Reinhold SW, Deutschmann M, Immervoll AK, Boger CA, Banas B, Eckardt KU, Oefner PJ: Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1244-53. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 9. [PubMed:21389975 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 104300 (Alzheimer's disease)
  • 600274 (Frontotemporal dementia)
  • 601313 (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease)
  • 610247 (Eosinophilic esophagitis)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003281
KNApSAcK IDC00001188
Chemspider ID1161
KEGG Compound IDC00311
BioCyc IDIsocitrate
BiGG ID34579
Wikipedia LinkIsocitric_acid
METLIN ID3328
PubChem Compound1198
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30887
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceFinogenova, T. V.; Kamzolova, S. V.; Dedyukhina, E. G.; Shishkanova, N. V.; Il'chenko, A. P.; Morgunov, I. G.; Chernyavskaya, O. G.; Sokolov, A. P. Biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids from ethanol by mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 1 under continuous cultivation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2002), 59(4-5), 493-500.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Stromme JH, Borud O, Moe PJ: Fatal lactic acidosis in a newborn attributable to a congenital defect of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Pediatr Res. 1976 Jan;10(1):62-6. [PubMed:813176 ]
  2. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. [PubMed:8579834 ]
  3. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  4. Sutor DJ, Percival JM, Doonan S: Isolation and identification of some urinary inhibitors of calcium phosphate formation. Clin Chim Acta. 1978 Oct 16;89(2):273-8. [PubMed:213213 ]
  5. Ebeling K, Ruckhaberle KE, Bilek K: [Studies on the recording of cytostatic effects on organ cultures of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1977;99(20):1249-59. [PubMed:595962 ]
  6. Sutor DJ, Percival JM, Doonan S: Urinary inhibitor of the formation of calcium oxalate. Br J Urol. 1979 Aug;51(4):253-5. [PubMed:223711 ]
  7. Hennequin C, Lalanne V, Daudon M, Lacour B, Drueke T: A new approach to studying inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystal growth. Urol Res. 1993 Mar;21(2):101-8. [PubMed:8389069 ]
  8. Kavanagh JP: Isocitric and citric acid in human prostatic and seminal fluid: implications for prostatic metabolism and secretion. Prostate. 1994;24(3):139-42. [PubMed:8115279 ]
  9. Mikosha AS, Monissarenko VP, Bychkovskaia LA: [Properties of adrenocortical isocitrate dehydrogenase]. Vopr Med Khim. 1981 Nov-Dec;27(6):736-9. [PubMed:7336646 ]
  10. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  11. Sutor DJ, Percival JM: The estimation of D-isocitric acid in urine using isocitrate dehydrogenase. Clin Chim Acta. 1978 Jun;86(2):223-5. [PubMed:657545 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACO2
Uniprot ID:
Q99798
Molecular weight:
85424.745
Reactions
Citric acid → Isocitric aciddetails
Isocitric acid → cis-Aconitic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Iron sensor. Binds a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as aconitase when cellular iron levels are high. Functions as mRNA binding protein that regulates uptake, sequestration and utilization of iron when cellular iron levels are low. Binds to iron-responsive elements (IRES) in target mRNA species when iron levels are low. Binding of a 4Fe-4S cluster precludes RNA binding. Catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACO1
Uniprot ID:
P21399
Molecular weight:
98398.14
Reactions
Citric acid → Isocitric aciddetails
Isocitric acid → cis-Aconitic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a role in intermediary metabolism and energy production. It may tightly associate or interact with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Gene Name:
IDH2
Uniprot ID:
P48735
Molecular weight:
50908.915
Reactions
Isocitric acid + NADP → Oxoglutaric acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
Isocitric acid + NADP → Oxoglutaric acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Isocitric acid + NADP → Oxalosuccinic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3B
Uniprot ID:
O43837
Molecular weight:
42183.39
Reactions
Isocitric acid + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + CO(2) + NADHdetails
Isocitric acid + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH1
Uniprot ID:
O75874
Molecular weight:
46659.005
Reactions
Isocitric acid + NADP → Oxoglutaric acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
Isocitric acid + NADP → Oxoglutaric acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Isocitric acid + NADP → Oxalosuccinic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3A
Uniprot ID:
P50213
Molecular weight:
39591.365
Reactions
Isocitric acid + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + CO(2) + NADHdetails
Isocitric acid + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IDH3G
Uniprot ID:
P51553
Molecular weight:
42793.97
Reactions
Isocitric acid + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + CO(2) + NADHdetails
Isocitric acid + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails