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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:40:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000237
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00237
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePropionic acid
DescriptionPropionic acid (PA) is widely used as an antifungal agent in food. It is present naturally at low levels in dairy products and occurs ubiquitously, together with other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), in the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other mammals as an end-product of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates. It has significant physiological activity in animals. PA is irritant but produces no acute systemic effects and has no demonstrable genotoxic potential. (PMID 1628870 ) Propionic aciduria is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, a disease that comprise many various disorders. The outcome of patients born with Propionic aciduria (genetic disorder) is poor intellectual development patterns, with 60% having an IQ less than 75 and requiring special education. Successful liver and/or renal transplantations, in a few patients, have resulted in better quality of life but have not necessarily prevented neurological and various visceral complications. These results emphasize the need for permanent metabolic follow-up whatever the therapeutic strategy. (PMID 15868474 ) Decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, and more favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome were recorded in patients identified through expanded newborn screening. (PMID 16763906 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acide propanoiqueChEBI
Acide propioniqueChEBI
CarboxyethaneChEBI
CH3-CH2-COOHChEBI
Ethanecarboxylic acidChEBI
Ethylformic acidChEBI
Metacetonic acidChEBI
Methylacetic acidChEBI
PAChEBI
Propanoic acidChEBI
Propioic acidChEBI
PropionsaeureChEBI
Propoic acidChEBI
Pseudoacetic acidChEBI
PropionateGenerator
EthanecarboxylateGenerator
EthylformateGenerator
MetacetonateGenerator
MethylacetateGenerator
PropanoateGenerator
PropioateGenerator
PropoateGenerator
PseudoacetateGenerator
AdofeedHMDB
Antischim bHMDB
LuprosilHMDB
MonoPropHMDB
PropanateHMDB
PropcornHMDB
PropkornHMDB
ProzoinHMDB
Toxi-checkHMDB
Propionic acid, zinc saltMeSH
Potassium propionateMeSH
Chromium propionateMeSH
Lithium propanoateMeSH
Zinc propionateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC3H6O2
Average Molecular Weight74.0785
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight74.036779436
IUPAC Namepropanoic acid
Traditional Namepropanoic acid
CAS Registry Number79-09-4
SMILES
CCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O2/c1-2-3(4)5/h2H2,1H3,(H,4,5)
InChI KeyXBDQKXXYIPTUBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct ParentCarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-20.7 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP0.33HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility352 g/LALOGPS
logP0.31ALOGPS
logP0.48ChemAxon
logS0.68ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.75ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity17.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability7.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-51f674be972a6c17185bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-691dcd080b30c9898350View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-51f674be972a6c17185bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-691dcd080b30c9898350View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00b9-9000000000-abf322c73e6badb078bfView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9100000000-cbfe9e32208652e70047View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-1af60fc458a7f351a9b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-aa6e765fc867ac8be641View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-27e0b790e192d1304449View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-51f674be972a6c17185bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-90d9e0181596093a2f85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-bdd7baa3d1bda886fb77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-e73379c8765802cf3228View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d6832c04c8b2ca0fdfa3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d0c93844dbfaed791bb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-bdd7baa3d1bda886fb77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-e73379c8765802cf3228View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d6832c04c8b2ca0fdfa3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d0c93844dbfaed791bb0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-47364fadf00a5a2b7e93View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-76fad523c005a6510264View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-a1c0234da57ff32c6e12View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-47364fadf00a5a2b7e93View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-76fad523c005a6510264View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-a1c0234da57ff32c6e12View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-db59da781a70634d2526View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-bea4ff21e6ab6c664412View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-782832f8f5ab85f2ef4fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-db59da781a70634d2526View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-bea4ff21e6ab6c664412View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-782832f8f5ab85f2ef4fView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00b9-9000000000-0bb3297c4159bed2316eView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Platelet
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.6 +/- 1.2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.9 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.8 +/- 3.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-1304067.0820 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified11400 +/- 4740 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified5040-14400 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified38 (1-264) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified70 (9-1113) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified76 (<1-632) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified13 (<1-140) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1180 +/- 1270 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified335 0+/- 4430 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2870 +/- 4090 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1790 +/- 2570 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1380 +/- 1820 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1720 +/- 2020 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1590 +/- 2430 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-586 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-100 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1412.24 +/- 1089.82 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified6420 (5920-6920) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.999 +/- 3.685 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.96 +/- 2.76 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.0 (11.4-18.3) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified7.500-119.700 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Propionic acidemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.200-57.400 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Methylmalonic acidaemia
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-725626.644 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Femaleankylosing spondylitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Femalerheumatoid arthritis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedGenetically At-Risk of celiac disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - <8 years old)Femalejuvenile idiopathic arthritis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00247 (0-0.00478) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohns disease
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.000432 (0-0.00477) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00108 (0-0.00409) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.977 +/- 2.137 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Monleon D, Morales JM, Barrasa A, Lopez JA, Vazquez C, Celda B: Metabolite profiling of fecal water extracts from human colorectal cancer. NMR Biomed. 2009 Apr;22(3):342-8. doi: 10.1002/nbm.1345. [PubMed:19006102 ]
  2. Weir TL, Manter DK, Sheflin AM, Barnett BA, Heuberger AL, Ryan EP: Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 6;8(8):e70803. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070803. Print 2013. [PubMed:23940645 ]
  3. Lin Y, Ma C, Liu C, Wang Z, Yang J, Liu X, Shen Z, Wu R: NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 May 17;7(20):29454-64. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8762. [PubMed:27107423 ]
  4. Wang X, Wang J, Rao B, Deng L: Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals. Exp Ther Med. 2017 Jun;13(6):2848-2854. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4367. Epub 2017 Apr 20. [PubMed:28587349 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  2. Bjerrum JT, Wang Y, Hao F, Coskun M, Ludwig C, Gunther U, Nielsen OH: Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals. Metabolomics. 2015;11:122-133. Epub 2014 Jun 1. [PubMed:25598765 ]
  3. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  2. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
Methylmalonic acidemia
  1. Thompson GN, Chalmers RA, Walter JH, Bresson JL, Lyonnet SL, Reed PJ, Saudubray JM, Leonard JV, Halliday D: The use of metronidazole in management of methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Aug;149(11):792-6. [PubMed:2226555 ]
Propionic acidemia
  1. Thompson GN, Chalmers RA, Walter JH, Bresson JL, Lyonnet SL, Reed PJ, Saudubray JM, Leonard JV, Halliday D: The use of metronidazole in management of methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Aug;149(11):792-6. [PubMed:2226555 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Tie-juan ShaoZhi-xing HeZhi-jun XieHai-chang LiMei-jiao WangCheng-ping Wen. Characterization of ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 1H NMR-based metabolomics of human fecal extracts. Metabolomics. April 2016, 12:70 [Link]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  2. Marchesi JR, Holmes E, Khan F, Kochhar S, Scanlan P, Shanahan F, Wilson ID, Wang Y: Rapid and noninvasive metabonomic characterization of inflammatory bowel disease. J Proteome Res. 2007 Feb;6(2):546-51. [PubMed:17269711 ]
  3. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  4. Bjerrum JT, Wang Y, Hao F, Coskun M, Ludwig C, Gunther U, Nielsen OH: Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals. Metabolomics. 2015;11:122-133. Epub 2014 Jun 1. [PubMed:25598765 ]
  5. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03766
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008285
KNApSAcK IDC00044287
Chemspider ID1005
KEGG Compound IDC00163
BioCyc IDPROPIONATE
BiGG ID34098
Wikipedia LinkPropionic acid
METLIN ID3215
PubChem Compound1032
PDB IDPPI
ChEBI ID30768
References
Synthesis ReferenceZhan, Jianghong; Meng, Wei; Gong, Tao; Huang, Fen-sheng. Preparation of propionic acid by propionaldehyde oxidation. Shihua Jishu Yu Yingyong (2005), 23(6), 421-423.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Chandler RJ, Aswani V, Tsai MS, Falk M, Wehrli N, Stabler S, Allen R, Sedensky M, Kazazian HH, Venditti CP: Propionyl-CoA and adenosylcobalamin metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans: evidence for a role of methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase in intermediary metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Sep-Oct;89(1-2):64-73. Epub 2006 Jul 14. [PubMed:16843692 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Somerma S, Lassus A, Salde L: Assessment of atrophy of human skin caused by corticosteroids using chamber occlusion and suction blister techniques. Acta Derm Venereol. 1984;64(1):41-5. [PubMed:6203280 ]
  4. Marala RB, Brown JA, Kong JX, Tracey WR, Knight DR, Wester RT, Sun D, Kennedy SP, Hamanaka ES, Ruggeri RB, Hill RJ: Zoniporide: a potent and highly selective inhibitor of human Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 6;451(1):37-41. [PubMed:12223226 ]
  5. Lin SC, Bergles DE: Synaptic signaling between neurons and glia. Glia. 2004 Aug 15;47(3):290-8. [PubMed:15252819 ]
  6. Alekseev OM, Widgren EE, Richardson RT, O'Rand MG: Association of NASP with HSP90 in mouse spermatogenic cells: stimulation of ATPase activity and transport of linker histones into nuclei. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jan 28;280(4):2904-11. Epub 2004 Nov 8. [PubMed:15533935 ]
  7. Robertson MD, Bickerton AS, Dennis AL, Vidal H, Frayn KN: Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):559-67. [PubMed:16155268 ]
  8. Esposito BP, Faljoni-Alario A, de Menezes JF, de Brito HF, Najjar R: A circular dichroism and fluorescence quenching study of the interactions between rhodium(II) complexes and human serum albumin. J Inorg Biochem. 1999 May 30;75(1):55-61. [PubMed:10402677 ]
  9. Jeng JH, Chan CP, Ho YS, Lan WH, Hsieh CC, Chang MC: Effects of butyrate and propionate on the adhesion, growth, cell cycle kinetics, and protein synthesis of cultured human gingival fibroblasts. J Periodontol. 1999 Dec;70(12):1435-42. [PubMed:10632518 ]
  10. Christensen JK, Varming T, Ahring PK, Jorgensen TD, Nielsen EO: In vitro characterization of 5-carboxyl-2,4-di-benzamidobenzoic acid (NS3763), a noncompetitive antagonist of GLUK5 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1003-10. Epub 2004 Feb 25. [PubMed:14985418 ]
  11. Bintvihok A, Kositcharoenkul S: Effect of dietary calcium propionate on performance, hepatic enzyme activities and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed a diet containing low levels of aflatoxin B1. Toxicon. 2006 Jan;47(1):41-6. Epub 2005 Nov 18. [PubMed:16298407 ]
  12. Mayer B, Schumacher M, Brandstatter H, Wagner FS, Hermetter A: High-throughput fluorescence screening of antioxidative capacity in human serum. Anal Biochem. 2001 Oct 15;297(2):144-53. [PubMed:11673881 ]
  13. De Kanter R, De Jager MH, Draaisma AL, Jurva JU, Olinga P, Meijer DK, Groothuis GM: Drug-metabolizing activity of human and rat liver, lung, kidney and intestine slices. Xenobiotica. 2002 May;32(5):349-62. [PubMed:12065058 ]
  14. Ridge BD, Batt MD, Palmer HE, Jarrett A: The dansyl chloride technique for stratum corneum renewal as an indicator of changes in epidermal mitotic activity following topical treatment. Br J Dermatol. 1988 Feb;118(2):167-74. [PubMed:3348963 ]
  15. Koeppe RA, Frey KA, Snyder SE, Meyer P, Kilbourn MR, Kuhl DE: Kinetic modeling of N-[11C]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate: alternatives for analysis of an irreversible positron emission tomography trace for measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in human brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999 Oct;19(10):1150-63. [PubMed:10532640 ]
  16. Nguyen TB, Snyder SE, Kilbourn MR: Syntheses of carbon-11 labeled piperidine esters as potential in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase. Nucl Med Biol. 1998 Nov;25(8):761-8. [PubMed:9863564 ]
  17. Wendel U, Zass R, Leupold D: Contribution of odd-numbered fatty acid oxidation to propionate production in neonates with methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias. Eur J Pediatr. 1993 Dec;152(12):1021-3. [PubMed:8131803 ]
  18. Beutler KT, Pankewycz O, Brautigan DL: Equivalent uptake of organic and inorganic zinc by monkey kidney fibroblasts, human intestinal epithelial cells, or perfused mouse intestine. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jan;61(1):19-31. [PubMed:9498328 ]
  19. Harrison PT: Propionic acid and the phenomenon of rodent forestomach tumorigenesis: a review. Food Chem Toxicol. 1992 Apr;30(4):333-40. [PubMed:1628870 ]
  20. de Baulny HO, Benoist JF, Rigal O, Touati G, Rabier D, Saudubray JM: Methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias: management and outcome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(3):415-23. [PubMed:15868474 ]
  21. Dionisi-Vici C, Deodato F, Roschinger W, Rhead W, Wilcken B: 'Classical' organic acidurias, propionic aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria and isovaleric aciduria: long-term outcome and effects of expanded newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Apr-Jun;29(2-3):383-9. [PubMed:16763906 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular weight:
78579.11
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Propionic acid → Pyrophosphate + Propinol adenylatedetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular weight:
74625.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Propionic acid → Pyrophosphate + Propinol adenylatedetails
General function:
Involved in Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Microtubule-associated protein involved in membrane protein-cytoskeleton interactions. It is thought to anchor the inhibitory glycine receptor (GLYR) to subsynaptic microtubules (By similarity). Catalyzes two steps in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. In the first step, molybdopterin is adenylated. Subsequently, molybdate is inserted into adenylated molybdopterin and AMP is released.
Gene Name:
GPHN
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQX3
Molecular weight:
79747.635
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q96FY7
Molecular weight:
59346.4
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSS3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H6R3
Molecular weight:
74777.655
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Propionic acid → Pyrophosphate + Propinol adenylatedetails