You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 02:22:44 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000639
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0003435
  • HMDB00639
  • HMDB03435
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGalactaric acid
DescriptionGalactaric acid, also known as mucic acid or galactarate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Galactaric acid exists as a solid, soluble (in water), and a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). Galactaric acid has been detected in multiple biofluids, such as saliva, urine, and blood. Within the cell, galactaric acid is primarily located in the cytoplasm. Galactaric acid is also a parent compound for other transformation products, including but not limited to, 2-(e)-O-feruloyl-D-galactaric acid, O-feruloylgalactaric acid, and galactaric acid derivative.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
acido GalactaricoChEBI
acido MucicoChEBI
GalactarsaeureChEBI
Galactosaccharic acidChEBI
GalaktarsaeureChEBI
Mucic acidChEBI
MucinsaeureChEBI
Saccharolactic acidChEBI
SchleimsaeureChEBI
GalactarateGenerator
GalactosaccharateGenerator
MucateGenerator
SaccharolactateGenerator
(2R,3S,4R,5S)-2,3,4,5-TetrahydroxyhexanedioateHMDB
(2R,3S,4R,5S)-2,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acidHMDB
D-Galactaric acidHMDB
Hexaric acidHMDB
meso-Galactaric acidHMDB
SchleimsaureHMDB
Strontium galactarate mono-hydrateMeSH
Galactaric acid, sodium saltMeSH
Chemical FormulaC6H10O8
Average Molecular Weight210.1388
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight210.037567296
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acid
Traditional Namemucin
CAS Registry Number526-99-8
SMILES
O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@H](O)C(O)=O)[C@@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O8/c7-1(3(9)5(11)12)2(8)4(10)6(13)14/h1-4,7-10H,(H,11,12)(H,13,14)/t1-,2+,3+,4-
InChI KeyDSLZVSRJTYRBFB-DUHBMQHGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 - 225 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mL at 14 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility63.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area155.52 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.14 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS)splash10-001l-0987000000-76d3c6748cb8a79adc39View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001l-0987000000-76d3c6748cb8a79adc39View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05bf-9400000000-b80ffbca6c943091f16eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00b9-6011394000-83b916b3001ad13cf34dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-052r-9260000000-16fac7d5f0f85285824dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0abi-9000000000-80a4d5a9910d243f2e48View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0abc-9000000000-144a5e96a20e3c66ca9dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0190000000-53cb6532b098f7615896View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-052r-9430000000-7bc8b56c9c00f7aed59fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-34bca663662f41b51683View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-c1a4fdc6f3d7d8e237aaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-f2f36dc0c7eca0f78710View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-052r-9240000000-c24ca4338feeca20c7f5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-0190000000-53cb6532b098f7615896View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-052r-9430000000-7bc8b56c9c00f7aed59fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-34bca663662f41b51683View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-c1a4fdc6f3d7d8e237aaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-f2f36dc0c7eca0f78710View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-052r-9240000000-c24ca4338feeca20c7f5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dl-1940000000-66a37b8eabfbc367df77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9700000000-ae255ce964e55a9644c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9100000000-fa70d3c1751580028d65View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0adr-9820000000-19f2dbe53ca43b0a1195View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9500000000-e0ce27927a6119cf1489View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ap0-9100000000-0c338926a15f642737e1View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.172 +/- 0.160 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.266 +/- 0.160 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.312 +/- 0.202 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.522 +/- 7.499 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified19.066 +/- 16.587 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001205
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2301286
KEGG Compound IDC00879
BioCyc IDD-GALACTARATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactaric_acid
METLIN ID5612
PubChem Compound3037582
PDB IDGAE
ChEBI ID30852
References
Synthesis ReferenceFauvarque, Jean-Francois; Guerin, Christophe; Petit, Serge; De Regis, Baynast. Process and electrolytic cell for preparing galactaric acid. Fr. Demande (1994), 14 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hirayama A, Nakashima E, Sugimoto M, Akiyama S, Sato W, Maruyama S, Matsuo S, Tomita M, Yuzawa Y, Soga T: Metabolic profiling reveals new serum biomarkers for differentiating diabetic nephropathy. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Dec;404(10):3101-9. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6412-x. Epub 2012 Sep 29. [PubMed:23052862 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215