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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-01-11 19:14:59 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00722
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLithocholyltaurine
DescriptionLithocholyltaurine is a bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. Lithocholic acid, a hydrophobic secondary bile acid, is well known to cause intrahepatic cholestasis. There have been extensive studies on the mechanisms of lithocholate-induced cholestasis in animals. Lithocholate diminishes both the bile acid-dependent and independent bile flow. In humans, elevated levels of lithocholic acid are found in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease. Lithocholyltaurine impairs both the bile canalicular contractions and the canalicular bile secretion, possibly by acting directly on the canalicular membranes in lithocholyltaurine-induced cholestasis. Lithocholyltaurine induce acute cholestasis-associated with retrieval of the bile salt export pump. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) of hepatocyte secretes conjugated bile salts across the canalicular membrane in an ATP-dependent manner. Hepatic retention of bile acids may lead to liver injury by hepatocyte apoptosis and eventually deterioration of cholestatic liver diseases. One mechanism of induced apoptosis by lithocholyltaurine is the induction of transcriptional activity of AP-1 (activation protein-1). (PMID: 16981261 , 15763547 , 16332456 , 18164257 ).
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC26H45NO5S
Average Molecular Weight483.704
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight483.301844245
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number516-90-5
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point212 - 213 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Feces
Tissue Locations
  • Gall Bladder
  • Intestine
Normal Concentrations
BileDetected and Quantified370.0 (350.0-380.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.614 +/- 0.013 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.810 +/- 0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
FecesDetected and Quantified0.51 +/- 0.40 nmol/g dry fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Abnormal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
External LinksNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceZhang, Jie; Griffiths, William J.; Bergman, Tomas; Sjoevall, Jan. Derivatization of bile acids with taurine for analysis by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry with collision-induced fragmentation. Journal of Lipid Research (1993), 34(11), 1895-900.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Tadano T, Kanoh M, Matsumoto M, Sakamoto K, Kamano T: Studies of serum and feces bile acids determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rinsho Byori. 2006 Feb;54(2):103-10. [PubMed:16548228 ]
  2. Lee BL, New AL, Ong CN: Comparative analysis of conjugated bile acids in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Dec 19;704(1-2):35-42. [PubMed:9518169 ]
  3. Hayashi H, Takada T, Suzuki H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y: Transport by vesicles of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile salts and taurolithocholate 3-sulfate: a comparison of human BSEP with rat Bsep. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Dec 30;1738(1-3):54-62. Epub 2005 Nov 15. [PubMed:16332456 ]
  4. Watanabe N, Kagawa T, Kojima S, Takashimizu S, Nagata N, Nishizaki Y, Mine T: Taurolithocholate impairs bile canalicular motility and canalicular bile secretion in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep 7;12(33):5320-5. [PubMed:16981261 ]
  5. Crocenzi FA, Basiglio CL, Perez LM, Portesio MS, Pozzi EJ, Roma MG: Silibinin prevents cholestasis-associated retrieval of the bile salt export pump, Bsep, in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets: possible involvement of cAMP. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 1;69(7):1113-20. [PubMed:15763547 ]
  6. Pusl T, Vennegeerts T, Wimmer R, Denk GU, Beuers U, Rust C: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces bile acid-induced apoptosis by modulation of AP-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Feb 29;367(1):208-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.12.122. Epub 2007 Dec 27. [PubMed:18164257 ]


General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Lithocholyltaurine → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfatedetails