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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:44:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001161
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0006831
  • HMDB01161
  • HMDB06831
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid
Description4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid, also known as gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) or 3-dehydroxycarnitine, is a highly water-soluble derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is also a precursor of L-carnitine. It is a substrate of gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase/dioxygenase (also known as BBOX) which catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, the last step in the L-carnitine biosynthesis pathway. Carnitine is essential for the transport of activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane during mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Numerous disorders have been described that lead to disturbances in energy production and in intermediary metabolism which are characterized by the production and excretion of unusual acylcarnitines. A mutation in the gene coding for carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase, or the OCTN2 transporter aetiologically, causes a carnitine deficiency that results in poor intestinal absorption of dietary L-carnitine, impaired reabsorption by the kidney, and increased urinary loss. Determination of the qualitative pattern of acylcarnitines can be of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. The betaine structure of carnitine requires special analytical procedures for recording. The ionic nature of L-carnitine causes a high water solubility which decreases with increasing chain length of the ester group in the acylcarnitines. Therefore, the distribution of L-carnitine and acylcarnitines in various organs is defined by their function and their physicochemical properties as well. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) permits screening for free and total carnitine, as well as complete quantitative acylcarnitine determination, including the long-chain acylcarnitine profile (PMID: 17508264 , Monatshefte fuer Chemie (2005), 136(8), 1279-1291., Int J Mass Spectrom. 1999;188:39-52.).
Structure
Data?1563860685
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-(N-Trimethylamino)butyrateChEBI
4-(Trimethylamino)butanoateChEBI
4-ButyrobetaineChEBI
ActinineChEBI
ButyrobetaineChEBI
DeoxycarnitineChEBI
gamma-ButyrobetainChEBI
gamma-ButyrobetaineChEBI
4-(N-Trimethylamino)butyric acidGenerator
4-(Trimethylamino)butanoic acidGenerator
g-ButyrobetainGenerator
Γ-butyrobetainGenerator
g-ButyrobetaineGenerator
Γ-butyrobetaineGenerator
Deoxy-carnitineHMDB
4-TrimethylaminobutyrateHMDB
4-N-Trimethylammonium butyrateHMDB
4-TrimethylammoniobutanoateHMDB
4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H15NO2
Average Molecular Weight145.1995
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight145.110278729
IUPAC Name4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Namebutyrobetaine
CAS Registry Number407-64-7
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CCCC([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H15NO2/c1-8(2,3)6-4-5-7(9)10/h4-6H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyJHPNVNIEXXLNTR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.33 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.2ALOGPS
logP-4ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.46ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.13 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity62.28 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.2 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9200000000-db9c27544fc4b78a3ffdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-859205a790bddd439909JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000j-9500000000-2244afa7512434be351dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-2c1f817b20a8cbfba00cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8c578b9dc166594a66beJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-052e-9000000000-d1e5ff8334122de266a6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-000b-7900000000-ff7cb6ee0c5eec3fb812JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f92-0900000000-543e3ddd695c95c84efdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uds-6900000000-2935d3993a057a2a7fddJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-1c7e8f5838068bd092fbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-f4142ed02e4763e04740JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-5900000000-74df013a2a0033b163e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0kg6-9000000000-eb91f7fa144cb7eb7e80JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified10.0 (0.5-20.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.754 +/- 0.692 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.10 +/- 0.713 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableNormal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
    2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
    3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB022456
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID705
    KEGG Compound IDC01181
    BioCyc IDGAMMA-BUTYROBETAINE
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkNot Available
    METLIN IDNot Available
    PubChem Compound725
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID16244
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceKawamura, Masao; Akutsu, Seiichi; Fukuda, Hirosuke; Hata, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Tsuyoshi; Kano, Kenji; Nishimori, Hirokuni. Manufacture of g-butyrobetaine by fermentation. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1987), 6 pp.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Hewawasam P, Ding M, Chen N, King D, Knipe J, Pajor L, Ortiz A, Gribkoff VK, Starrett J: Synthesis of water-soluble prodrugs of BMS-191011: a maxi-K channel opener targeted for post-stroke neuroprotection. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 May 19;13(10):1695-8. [PubMed:12729644 ]
    2. Siliprandi N, Ciman M, Sartorelli L: Myocardial carnitine transport. Basic Res Cardiol. 1987;82 Suppl 1:53-62. [PubMed:3311009 ]
    3. Rebouche CJ, Engel AG: Significance of renal gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase for carnitine biosynthesis in man. J Biol Chem. 1980 Sep 25;255(18):8700-5. [PubMed:6773946 ]
    4. Terada N, Inoue F, Okochi M, Nakajima H, Kizaki Z, Kinugasa A, Sawada T: Measurement of carnitine precursors, epsilon-trimethyllysine and gamma-butyrobetaine in human serum by tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Aug 6;731(1):89-95. [PubMed:10491993 ]
    5. Rebouche CJ, Chenard CA: Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites. J Nutr. 1991 Apr;121(4):539-46. [PubMed:2007906 ]
    6. Pierre G, Macdonald A, Gray G, Hendriksz C, Preece MA, Chakrapani A: Prospective treatment in carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):815. Epub 2007 May 12. [PubMed:17508264 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH9A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P49189
    Molecular weight:
    56291.485
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADHdetails
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH7A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P49419
    Molecular weight:
    58486.74
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    ALDH1A3
    Uniprot ID:
    P47895
    Molecular weight:
    56107.995
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ALDH2
    Uniprot ID:
    P05091
    Molecular weight:
    56380.93
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH3A2
    Uniprot ID:
    P51648
    Molecular weight:
    54847.36
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH1B1
    Uniprot ID:
    P30837
    Molecular weight:
    57248.96
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in iron ion binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
    Gene Name:
    BBOX1
    Uniprot ID:
    O75936
    Molecular weight:
    44714.6
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + CO(2)details
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails