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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-18 01:49:11 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01211
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDiadenosine tetraphosphate
DescriptionDiadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) is a diadenosine polyphosphate. Diadenosine polyphosphates (APnAs, n=3-6) are a family of endogenous vasoactive purine dinucleotides which have been isolated from thrombocytes. APnAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of vascular tone as well as the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and hence, possibly, in atherogenesis. APnAs isolated substances are Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A, and Ap6A. APnAs are naturally occurring substances that facilitate tear secretion; they are released from the corneal epithelium, they stimulate tear production and therefore they may be considered as physiological modulators of tear secretion. The APnAs were discovered in the mid-sixties in the course of studies on aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). APnAs have emerged as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules implicated in the maintenance and regulation of vital cellular functions and become considered as second messengers. Great variety of physiological and pathological effects in mammalian cells was found to be associated with alterations of APnAs. APnAs are polyphosphated nucleotidic substances which are found in the CNS and are known to be released in a calcium-dependent manner from storage vesicles in brain synaptosomes. AP5A is a specific adenylate kinase inhibitor in the hippocampus, decreasing the rate of decomposition of ADP and the formation of ATP; a pathway that influences the availability of purines in the central nervous system. AP4A is the only APnA that can induce a considerable increase in [Ca2+] in endothelial cells, indicating that its vasoactive effects are comparable to the known effects of arginine vasopressin, Angiotensin II, and ATP. AP4A is a ubiquitous ApnA is a signal molecule for DNA replication in mammalian cells. AP4A is a primer for oligoadenylate synthesis catalyzed by interferon-inducible 2-5A synthetase. AP4A is an avid inhibitor of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a catalytically proficient member of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily secreted along with other eosinophil granule proteins during innate host defense responses and various eosinophil-related inflammatory and allergic diseases. The ribonucleolytic activity of EDN is central to its antiviral and neurotoxic activities and possibly to other facets of its biological activity. (PMID: 11212966 , 12738682 , 11810214 , 9607303 , 8922753 , 9187362 , 16401072 , 9694344 , 9351706 , 1953194 ).
Bis(5'-adenylyl) diphosphateChEBI
P1,P4-Bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphateChEBI
Diadenosine tetraphosphoric acidGenerator
Bis(5'-adenylyl) diphosphoric acidGenerator
P1,P4-Bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphoric acidGenerator
5',5'''-diadenosine tetraphosphateHMDB
Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate, 5'-ester with adenosineHMDB
Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphateHMDB
P(1), P(4)-Diadenosine-5'tetraphosphateMeSH
Diadenosine 5',5'''-P(1),P(4)--tetraphosphateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC20H28N10O19P4
Average Molecular Weight836.387
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight836.048264812
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}({[({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy})phosphinic acid
Traditional Nameappppa
CAS Registry Number5542-28-9
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Alternative Parents
  • (5'->5')-dinucleotide
  • Purine ribonucleoside polyphosphate
  • Purine nucleotide sugar
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Monosaccharide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Pyrimidine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Imidolactam
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Biological location:


Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-1.475Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility5.59 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.6ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count22ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area433.97 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity166.1 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability67.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0910200030-f62591a77764336369caView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-f3c88b3e116ab3d6c1b4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-ed94ad304e91a867ff3bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0019-0700020090-f52e6941bbc750fe0e76View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900010000-dd233557a62d77a1406bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-1915110000-741bdaae70092f502b8eView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.54 +/- 0.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  1. Jankowski J, Jankowski V, Laufer U, van der Giet M, Henning L, Tepel M, Zidek W, Schluter H: Identification and quantification of diadenosine polyphosphate concentrations in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jul 1;23(7):1231-8. Epub 2003 May 8. [PubMed:12738682 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022492
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID20402
KEGG Compound IDC01260
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound21706
ChEBI ID17422
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Stiepanow-Trzeciak A, Jankowski M, Angielski S, Szczepanska-Konkel M: P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) inhibits proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium in rats. Nephron Physiol. 2007;106(1):p13-8. Epub 2007 Apr 2. [PubMed:17406124 ]
  2. de Korte D, Gouwerok CW, Fijnheer R, Pietersz RN, Roos D: Depletion of dense granule nucleotides during storage of human platelets. Thromb Haemost. 1990 Apr 12;63(2):275-8. [PubMed:2141956 ]
  3. Hoyle CH: Pharmacological activity of adenine dinucleotides in the periphery: possible receptor classes and transmitter function. Gen Pharmacol. 1990;21(6):827-31. [PubMed:2279683 ]
  4. Pintor J, Puche JA, Gualix J, Hoyle CH, Miras-Portugal MT: Diadenosine polyphosphates evoke Ca2+ transients in guinea-pig brain via receptors distinct from those for ATP. J Physiol. 1997 Oct 15;504 ( Pt 2):327-35. [PubMed:9365907 ]
  5. Hourani SM, Bailey SJ, Johnson CR, Tennant JP: Effects of adenosine 5'-triphosphate, uridine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates in guinea-pig taenia caeci and rat colon muscularis mucosae. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;358(4):464-73. [PubMed:9826069 ]
  6. van der Giet M, Jankowski J, Schluter H, Zidek W, Tepel M: Mediation of the vasoactive properties of diadenosine tetraphosphate via various purinoceptors. J Hypertens. 1998 Dec;16(12 Pt 2):1939-43. [PubMed:9886880 ]
  7. Wildman SS, Brown SG, King BF, Burnstock G: Selectivity of diadenosine polyphosphates for rat P2X receptor subunits. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 12;367(1):119-23. [PubMed:10082274 ]
  8. Gualix J, Pintor J, Miras-Portugal MT: Characterization of nucleotide transport into rat brain synaptic vesicles. J Neurochem. 1999 Sep;73(3):1098-104. [PubMed:10461900 ]
  9. van der Giet M, Khattab M, Borgel J, Schluter H, Zidek W: Differential effects of diadenosine phosphates on purinoceptors in the rat isolated perfused kidney. Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;120(8):1453-60. [PubMed:9113365 ]
  10. Pirrone AM, Gambino R, Oddo F, Faraci MT, Luparello G, Giudice G: Sea urchin embryos do not synthesize diadenosinetetraphosphate. Exp Cell Res. 1979 Sep;122(2):419-22. [PubMed:510412 ]
  11. Hollah P, Hausberg M, Kosch M, Barenbrock M, Letzel M, Schlatter E, Rahn KH: A novel assay for determination of diadenosine polyphosphates in human platelets: studies in normotensive subjects and in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2001 Feb;19(2):237-45. [PubMed:11212966 ]
  12. Jankowski J, Schluter H, Tepel M, Spieker C, Zidek W: Effect of diadenosine polyphosphates on Ca2+ ATPase activity. J Mol Med (Berl). 1997 Sep;75(9):674-7. [PubMed:9351706 ]
  13. Stachon A, Stegemann H, Hohage H, Rahn KH, Schlatter E: Effects of diadenosine polyphosphates on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in endothelial cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 1998;8(4):175-84. [PubMed:9694344 ]
  14. Pintor J, Carracedo G, Alonso MC, Bautista A, Peral A: Presence of diadenosine polyphosphates in human tears. Pflugers Arch. 2002 Jan;443(3):432-6. Epub 2001 Aug 23. [PubMed:11810214 ]
  15. Jankowski J, Jankowski V, Laufer U, van der Giet M, Henning L, Tepel M, Zidek W, Schluter H: Identification and quantification of diadenosine polyphosphate concentrations in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jul 1;23(7):1231-8. Epub 2003 May 8. [PubMed:12738682 ]
  16. Kisselev LL, Justesen J, Wolfson AD, Frolova LY: Diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap(n)A), a novel class of signalling molecules? FEBS Lett. 1998 May 8;427(2):157-63. [PubMed:9607303 ]
  17. Pintor J, King BF, Miras-Portugal MT, Burnstock G: Selectivity and activity of adenine dinucleotides at recombinant P2X2 and P2Y1 purinoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;119(5):1006-12. [PubMed:8922753 ]
  18. Turpaev K, Hartmann R, Kisselev L, Justesen J: Ap3A and Ap4A are primers for oligoadenylate synthesis catalyzed by interferon-inducible 2-5A synthetase. FEBS Lett. 1997 May 19;408(2):177-81. [PubMed:9187362 ]
  19. Baker MD, Holloway DE, Swaminathan GJ, Acharya KR: Crystal structures of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in complex with the inhibitors 5'-ATP, Ap3A, Ap4A, and Ap5A. Biochemistry. 2006 Jan 17;45(2):416-26. [PubMed:16401072 ]
  20. Chan PJ, Su BC, Tredway DR: Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and triphosphate (Ap3A) signaling of human sperm motility. Arch Androl. 1991 Sep-Oct;27(2):103-8. [PubMed:1953194 ]


General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Asymmetrically hydrolyzes Ap4A to yield AMP and ATP. Plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Diadenosine tetraphosphate + Water → Adenosine triphosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails