Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-04-01 19:19:52 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01266
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Sorbose
DescriptionSorbose is a ketose belonging to the group of sugars known as monosaccharides. The commercial production of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) often begins with sorbose. Sorbose has been found to be a metabolites of Ketogulonicigenium (PMID: 15785002 ).
Tagatose, (D)-isomerHMDB
Tagatose, (beta-D)-isomerHMDB
Tagatose, (alpha-D)-isomerHMDB
Tagatose, (DL)-isomerHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(3S,4S,5R)-1,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexan-2-one
Traditional Nametagatose
CAS Registry Number87-79-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are compounds containing one carbohydrate unit not glycosidically linked to another such unit, and no set of two or more glycosidically linked carbohydrate units. Monosaccharides have the general formula CnH2nOn.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentMonosaccharides
Alternative Parents
  • Monosaccharide
  • Beta-hydroxy ketone
  • Acyloin
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Polyol
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point165 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility360 mg/mL at 17 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1190 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.48ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.22 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.56 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.44 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxs-0931000000-9deccc61a68dc8c51aa7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-0930000000-e1672ba6560efb925aa5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxs-0931000000-9deccc61a68dc8c51aa7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxr-0930000000-e1672ba6560efb925aa5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0920000000-c785d191926ead60dc63JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uxs-0930000000-0c79b52b64467170ea34JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-9400000000-cbf0535ab90e3a601a7aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-5303980000-07ca5d770983bd06de30JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-1900000000-72ad7431e281814fc59aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kb-9000000000-ac1464fac3ca774eb08bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05mk-9000000000-4bc4673c212944cded87JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-1900000000-87bee64df7fe316d7affJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9300000000-eb4eeb92523e2e200555JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-08fu-9100000000-3f790be8b14df714880bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0170-7900000000-041fe274da364a106e71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-052r-9300000000-6f545044f1769c501e2bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-b0a05227494224e23bd2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Testes
Normal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-1.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Prostate Cancer
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Prostate cancer
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04936
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012528
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID83142
KEGG Compound IDC00795
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID36022
Wikipedia LinkFructose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound92092
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID47693
Synthesis ReferenceBanjopnoppakun, Tanaphat; Moonmangmee, Somporn; Moonmangmee, Duangtip. Production of L-sorbose by thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria. Proceeding of the Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 44th, Bangkok, Thailand, Jan. 30-Feb. 2, 2006 (2006), 117-123.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Gryz EA, Galicka-Latala D, Szczudlik A, Sieradzki J: [Etiopathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy]. Przegl Lek. 2000;57(12):727-31. [PubMed:11398597 ]
  2. Nakamura J, Koh N, Sakakibara F, Hamada Y, Wakao T, Sasaki H, Mori K, Nakashima E, Naruse K, Hotta N: Diabetic neuropathy in sucrose-fed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats: effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT. Life Sci. 1997;60(21):1847-57. [PubMed:9154994 ]
  3. Wang C, So SY, Wong KK, So WW, Chan SY: Chronic sinopulmonary disease in Chinese patients with obstructive azoospermia. J Androl. 1987 Jul-Aug;8(4):225-9. [PubMed:3624059 ]
  4. Kossi J, Peltonen J, Uotila P, Laato M: Differential effects of hexoses and sucrose, and platelet-derived growth factor isoforms on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 mRNA expression in keloid, hypertrophic scar and granulation tissue fibroblasts. Arch Dermatol Res. 2001 Mar;293(3):126-32. [PubMed:11357226 ]
  5. Gross KC, Houghton MP, Senterfit LB: Presumptive speciation of Streptococcus bovis and other group D streptococci from human sources by using arginine and pyruvate tests. J Clin Microbiol. 1975 Jan;1(1):54-60. [PubMed:1176592 ]
  6. Fukasawa M, Takayama E, Shinomiya N, Okumura A, Rokutanda M, Yamamoto N, Sakakibara R: Identification of the promoter region of human placental 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jan 27;267(3):703-8. [PubMed:10673355 ]
  7. Le KA, Tappy L: Metabolic effects of fructose. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Jul;9(4):469-75. [PubMed:16778579 ]
  8. Fukasawa M, Tsuchiya T, Takayama E, Shinomiya N, Uyeda K, Sakakibara R, Seki S: Identification and characterization of the hypoxia-responsive element of the human placental 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene. J Biochem. 2004 Sep;136(3):273-7. [PubMed:15598882 ]
  9. Yanez AJ, Bertinat R, Spichiger C, Carcamo JG, de Los Angeles Garcia M, Concha II, Nualart F, Slebe JC: Novel expression of liver FBPase in Langerhans islets of human and rat pancreas. J Cell Physiol. 2005 Oct;205(1):19-24. [PubMed:15965961 ]
  10. Lee YH, Li Y, Uyeda K, Hasemann CA: Tissue-specific structure/function differentiation of the liver isoform of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 3;278(1):523-30. Epub 2002 Oct 11. [PubMed:12379646 ]
  11. Minchenko O, Opentanova I, Minchenko D, Ogura T, Esumi H: Hypoxia induces transcription of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase-4 gene via hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha activation. FEBS Lett. 2004 Oct 8;576(1-2):14-20. [PubMed:15474002 ]
  12. Andrade-Rocha FT: Physical analysis of ejaculate to evaluate the secretory activity of the seminal vesicles and prostate. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(11):1203-10. [PubMed:16232086 ]
  13. Roy S, Banerjee A, Pandey HC, Singh G, Kumari GL: Application of seminal germ cell morphology and semen biochemistry in the diagnosis and management of azoospermic subjects. Asian J Androl. 2001 Mar;3(1):55-62. [PubMed:11250795 ]
  14. Blakemore SJ, Aledo JC, James J, Campbell FC, Lucocq JM, Hundal HS: The GLUT5 hexose transporter is also localized to the basolateral membrane of the human jejunum. Biochem J. 1995 Jul 1;309 ( Pt 1):7-12. [PubMed:7619085 ]
  15. Abou El Fadil-Nicol F, Berger F, Descroix-Vagne M, Pansu D: Presence of sorbin in human digestive tract and endocrine digestive tumours. Gut. 2000 Feb;46(2):182-90. [PubMed:10644311 ]
  16. Faeh D, Minehira K, Schwarz JM, Periasamy R, Park S, Tappy L: Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):1907-13. [PubMed:15983189 ]
  17. Atsumi T, Chesney J, Metz C, Leng L, Donnelly S, Makita Z, Mitchell R, Bucala R: High expression of inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (iPFK-2; PFKFB3) in human cancers. Cancer Res. 2002 Oct 15;62(20):5881-7. [PubMed:12384552 ]
  18. Wu LY, Juan CC, Hwang LS, Hsu YP, Ho PH, Ho LT: Green tea supplementation ameliorates insulin resistance and increases glucose transporter IV content in a fructose-fed rat model. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Apr;43(2):116-24. Epub 2004 Jan 6. [PubMed:15083319 ]
  19. Ludwig M, Vidal A, Diemer T, Pabst W, Failing K, Weidner W: Seminal secretory capacity of the male accessory sex glands in chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS)/chronic prostatitis with special focus on the new prostatitis classification. Eur Urol. 2002 Jul;42(1):24-8. [PubMed:12121725 ]
  20. Massucco P, Mattiello L, Russo I, Traversa M, Doronzo G, Anfossi G, Trovati M: High glucose rapidly activates the nitric oxide/cyclic nucleotide pathway in human platelets via an osmotic mechanism. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Mar;93(3):517-26. [PubMed:15735804 ]
  21. Sugisawa T, Miyazaki T, Hoshino T: Microbial production of L-ascorbic acid from D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, L-gulose, and L-sorbosone by Ketogulonicigenium vulgare DSM 4025. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Mar;69(3):659-62. doi: 10.1271/bbb.69.659. [PubMed:15785002 ]


General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Converts sorbitol to fructose. Part of the polyol pathway that plays an important role in sperm physiology. May play a role in the sperm motility by providing an energetic source for sperm (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-Iditol + NAD → L-Sorbose + NADHdetails