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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-01-30 20:40:16 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001423
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0062184
  • HMDB01423
  • HMDB62184
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCoenzyme A
DescriptionCoenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. It is adapted from beta-mercaptoethylamine, panthothenate, and adenosine triphosphate. It is also a parent compound for other transformation products, including but not limited to, phenylglyoxylyl-CoA, tetracosanoyl-CoA, and 6-hydroxyhex-3-enoyl-CoA. Coenzyme A is synthesized in a five-step process from pantothenate and cysteine. In the first step pantothenate (vitamin B5) is phosphorylated to 4'-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase (PanK, CoaA, CoaX). In the second step, a cysteine is added to 4'-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPC-DC, CoaB) to form 4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine (PPC). In the third step, PPC is decarboxylated to 4'-phosphopantetheine by phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (CoaC). In the fourth step, 4'-phosphopantetheine is adenylylated to form dephospho-CoA by the enzyme phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase (CoaD). Finally, dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated using ATP to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase (CoaE). Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. CoA assists in transferring fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria. A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA. When it is not attached to an acyl group, it is usually referred to as 'CoASH' or 'HSCoA'. Coenzyme A is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier proteins and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule itself. It is the precursor to HMG CoA which is a vital component in cholesterol and ketone synthesis. Furthermore, it contributes an acetyl group to choline to produce acetylcholine in a reaction catalysed by choline acetyltransferase. Its main task is conveying the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production (Wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3'-Phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheineChEBI
[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-Purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulfanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl dihydrogen diphosphateChEBI
CoAChEBI
CoA-SHChEBI
CoASHChEBI
Coenzym aChEBI
HSCoAChEBI
Koenzym aChEBI
[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-Purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulfanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl dihydrogen diphosphoric acidGenerator
[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-Purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulphanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl dihydrogen diphosphateGenerator
[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-Purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulphanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl dihydrogen diphosphoric acidGenerator
a, CoenzymeMeSH
18-CoA-18-oxo-dinor-LTB4HMDB
Acetoacetyl coenzyme A sodium saltHMDB
CoA HydrateHMDB
Coenzyme A HydrateHMDB
Coenzyme A-SHHMDB
Coenzyme ASHHMDB
Coenzyme AHMDB
Depot-zeelHMDB
Propionyl CoAHMDB
Propionyl coenzyme AHMDB
S-PropanoateHMDB
S-Propanoate CoAHMDB
S-Propanoate coenzyme AHMDB
S-Propanoic acidHMDB
S-Propionate CoAHMDB
S-Propionate coenzyme AHMDB
ZeelHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H36N7O16P3S
Average Molecular Weight767.534
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight767.115208365
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-({[hydroxy({hydroxy[(3R)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-({2-[(2-sulfanylethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)propoxy]phosphoryl}oxy)phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Namecoenzyme A
CAS Registry Number85-61-0
SMILES
CC(C)(COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N)[C@@H](O)C(=O)NCCC(=O)NCCS
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H36N7O16P3S/c1-21(2,16(31)19(32)24-4-3-12(29)23-5-6-48)8-41-47(38,39)44-46(36,37)40-7-11-15(43-45(33,34)35)14(30)20(42-11)28-10-27-13-17(22)25-9-26-18(13)28/h9-11,14-16,20,30-31,48H,3-8H2,1-2H3,(H,23,29)(H,24,32)(H,36,37)(H,38,39)(H2,22,25,26)(H2,33,34,35)/t11-,14-,15-,16+,20-/m1/s1
InChI KeyRGJOEKWQDUBAIZ-IBOSZNHHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as coenzyme a and derivatives. These are derivative of vitamin B5 containing a 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety attached to a diphospho-adenosine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine ribonucleotides
Direct ParentCoenzyme A and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Ribonucleoside 3'-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Monosaccharide
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Alkylthiol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.64 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.61ALOGPS
logP-5.7ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area346.56 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity162.74 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability65.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9423572000-e15b71f4fd7a2baa5a35View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-002s-5900000100-c920e6430f49f066a644View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-002r-6910000000-4dcac54e50dd5309af5cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-002r-8900000000-c9fc1dcc0fa2fecbf2f0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-6910232700-7e01b474d15249f13f3eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-2900200000-23c6af6438be416c3b4eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-057i-6900100000-a9a1d2f2162117f6ad81View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00007258
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00010
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCoenzyme_A
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound87642
PDB IDCOA
ChEBI ID15346
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Wendel U, Zass R, Leupold D: Contribution of odd-numbered fatty acid oxidation to propionate production in neonates with methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias. Eur J Pediatr. 1993 Dec;152(12):1021-3. [PubMed:8131803 ]
  2. Bergstrom T, Greter J, Levin AH, Steen G, Tryding N, Wass U: Propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: case report, effect of low-protein diet and identification of 3-oxo-2-methylvaleric acid 3-hydroxy-2-methylvaleric acid, and maleic acid in urine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1981 Apr;41(2):117-26. [PubMed:7313494 ]
  3. Roe CR, Sweetman L, Roe DS, David F, Brunengraber H: Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul;110(2):259-69. [PubMed:12122118 ]
  4. Yano S, Li L, Le TP, Moseley K, Guedalia A, Lee J, Gonzalez I, Boles RG: Infantile mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome associated with methylmalonic aciduria and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiencies in two unrelated patients: a new phenotype of mtDNA depletion syndrome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26(5):481-8. [PubMed:14518828 ]
  5. Kretschmer RE, Bachmann C: Methylcitric acid determination in amniotic fluid by electron-impact mass fragmentography. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1988 May;26(5):345-8. [PubMed:3404093 ]
  6. Osmundsen H, Bremer J, Pedersen JI: Metabolic aspects of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Sep 11;1085(2):141-58. [PubMed:1892883 ]
  7. Reihner E, Angelin B, Rudling M, Ewerth S, Bjorkhem I, Einarsson K: Regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in humans: stimulatory effects of cholestyramine on HMG-CoA reductase activity and low density lipoprotein receptor expression in gallstone patients. J Lipid Res. 1990 Dec;31(12):2219-26. [PubMed:2090716 ]
  8. Salen G, Batta AK, Tint GS, Shefer S: Comparative effects of lovastatin and chenodeoxycholic acid on plasma cholestanol levels and abnormal bile acid metabolism in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Metabolism. 1994 Aug;43(8):1018-22. [PubMed:8052141 ]
  9. Lehnert W, Junker A: [2-Methyl-3-oxovaleric acid: a characteristic metabolite in propionic acidemia]. Clin Chim Acta. 1980 May 21;104(1):47-51. [PubMed:7389125 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 186 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP citrate synthase activity
Specific function:
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.
Gene Name:
ACLY
Uniprot ID:
P53396
Molecular weight:
120838.27
Reactions
ADP + Phosphoric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic acid → Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme A → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Functions as histone acetyltransferase and regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling. Acetylates all four core histones in nucleosomes. Histone acetylation gives an epigenetic tag for transcriptional activation. Mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. Also functions as acetyltransferase for nonhistone targets. Acetylates 'Lys-131' of ALX1 and acts as its coactivator in the presence of CREBBP. Acetylates SIRT2 and is proposed to indirectly increase the transcriptional activity of TP53 through acetylation and subsequent attenuation of SIRT2 deacetylase function. Acetylates HDAC1 leading to its inactivation and modulation of transcription. Acts as a TFAP2A-mediated transcriptional coactivator in presence of CITED2. Plays a role as a coactivator of NEUROD1-dependent transcription of the secretin and p21 genes and controls terminal differentiation of cells in the intestinal epithelium. Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. Can also mediate transcriptional repression. Binds to and may be involved in the transforming capacity of the adenovirus E1A protein. In case of HIV-1 infection, it is recruited by the viral protein Tat. Regulates Tat's transactivating activity and may help inducing chromatin remodeling of proviral genes. Acetylates FOXO1 and enhances its transcriptional activity.
Gene Name:
EP300
Uniprot ID:
Q09472
Molecular weight:
264159.725
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BWD1
Molecular weight:
41350.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation. Also acetylates non-histone proteins, like NCOA3 and FOXO1. Binds specifically to phosphorylated CREB and enhances its transcriptional activity toward cAMP-responsive genes. Acts as a coactivator of ALX1 in the presence of EP300.
Gene Name:
CREBBP
Uniprot ID:
Q92793
Molecular weight:
260991.825
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular weight:
19154.905
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyldiaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular weight:
64632.86
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + CO(2)details
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT1
Uniprot ID:
P18440
Molecular weight:
33898.445
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetylarylaminedetails
2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene + Acetyl-CoA → 4-Acetamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene + Coenzyme Adetails
Acetyl-CoA + Isoniazid → Coenzyme A + Acetylisoniaziddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Acetylhydrazine → Coenzyme A + N,N'-Diacetylhydrazinedetails
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P11245
Molecular weight:
33570.245
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetylarylaminedetails
2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene + Acetyl-CoA → 4-Acetamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene + Coenzyme Adetails
Acetyl-CoA + Isoniazid → Coenzyme A + Acetylisoniaziddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Acetylhydrazine → Coenzyme A + N,N'-Diacetylhydrazinedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular weight:
70580.325
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + CO(2)details
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 186 proteins in total.