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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-02-22 10:50:16 UTC
Update Date2019-07-25 18:12:19 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001858
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0013762
  • HMDB01858
  • HMDB13762
Metabolite Identification
Common Namep-Cresol
Descriptionp-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a phenol. It is a partially lipophilic moiety which strongly binds to plasma protein (close to 100%) under normal conditions. p-Cresol is metabolized through conjugation, mainly sulphation and glucuronization, but removal of the unconjugated p-cresol is, at least in part, via the urine. Therefore it is not surprising that this compound, together with several other phenoles, is retained when the kidneys fail. P-Cresol is an end-product of protein breakdown, and an increase of the nutritional protein load in healthy individuals results in enhanced generation and urinary excretion. The serum p-cresol concentration in uremic patients can be decreased by changing to a low-protein diet. p-Cresol is one of the metabolites of the amino acid tyrosine, and to a certain extent also of phenylalanine, which are converted to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by intestinal bacteria, before being decarboxylated to p-cresol (putrefaction). The main contributing bacteria are aerobes (mainly enterobacteria), but to a certain extent also anaerobes play a role (mainly Clostridium perfringens). In uremia, modifications in the intestinal flora result in the specific overgrowth of bacteria that are specific p-cresol producers. The administration of antibiotics reduces urinary excretion of p-cresol, as a result of the liquidation of the producing bacteria. Environmental factors might also contribute. The liver cytochrome P450 metabolizes toluene to benzyl alcohol, but also to o-cresol and p-cresol. Toluene is not only used industrially, but it is also the most widely abusively inhaled solvent. Furthermore, p-cresol is a metabolite of menthofuran, one of the metabolites of R-(+)-pulegone, which is found in extracts from the plants Mentha pulegium and Hedeoma pulegioides, commonly known as pennyroyal oil and pennyroyal tea. These extracts are popular as unconventional herbal therapeutic agents and are applied as abortiva, diaphoretics, emmenagogues, and psychedelic drugs. Pennyroyal oil is extensively used for its pleasant mint-like smell in the flavoring industry. The toxicity of pennyroyal oil and menthofuran is well known. Another compound used in traditional medicine, especially in Japan, which is a precursor of p-cresol is wood tar creosote. p-Cresol has been reported to affect several biochemical, biological and physiological functions: (i) it diminishes the oxygen uptake of rat cerebral cortex slices; (ii) it increases the free active drug concentration of warfarin and diazepam; (iii) it has been related to growth retardation in the weanling pig; (iv) it alters cell membrane permeability, at least in bacteria; (v) it induces LDH leakage from rat liver slices; (vi) it induces susceptibility to auditive epileptic crises; and (vii) it blocks cell K+ channels. (PMID: 10570076 ). p-Cresol is a uremic toxin that is at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis in haemodialysis patients, and has been involved in the progression of renal failure. (MID: 11169029). At concentrations encountered during uremia, p-cresol inhibits phagocyte function and decreases leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. (PMID: 14681860 ). p-Cresol can be found in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterobacter and Lactobacillus (PMID: 2394806 ; PMID: 30208103 ).
Structure
Data?1563860707
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzeneChEBI
4-CresolChEBI
4-HydroxytolueneChEBI
4-MethylphenolChEBI
p-KresolChEBI
p-MethylphenolChEBI
p-Tolyl alcoholChEBI
ParacresolChEBI
1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzeneHMDB
4-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)phenolHMDB
4-Methyl phenolHMDB
4-Methyl-phenolHMDB
p-CresylateHMDB
p-Cresylic acidHMDB
p-HydroxytolueneHMDB
p-Methyl phenolHMDB
p-MethylhydroxybenzeneHMDB
p-OxytolueneHMDB
p-ToluolHMDB
Paramethyl phenolHMDB
4-Cresol, potassium saltHMDB
m-CresolHMDB
4-Cresol, aluminum saltHMDB
4-Cresol, sodium saltHMDB
Para-cresolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8O
Average Molecular Weight108.1378
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight108.057514878
IUPAC Name4-methylphenol
Traditional NameP-cresol
CAS Registry Number106-44-5
SMILES
CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8O/c1-6-2-4-7(8)5-3-6/h2-5,8H,1H3
InChI KeyIWDCLRJOBJJRNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as para cresols. Para cresols are compounds containing a para cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing one hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassCresols
Direct ParentPara cresols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • P-cresol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Toluene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point35.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility21.5 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP1.94HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 g/LALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-0.67ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity33.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-1d2bdfde621a5af9be73JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-15d473146e11e4b049b2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-4900000000-14fef90a661a09457976JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-1d2bdfde621a5af9be73JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-15d473146e11e4b049b2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-4900000000-14fef90a661a09457976JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-27534de20ade11dd5454JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06fr-9700000000-f41dd95ca553de6bafffJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-ab55ada5cae0538f383eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-385a7a99e0409c7f060dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02tl-9000000000-205f4e5245868e9debccJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (VARIAN MAT-44) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-fd438231ac0ed75fdf09JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-7900000000-0cdab17a1a95f3e65f45JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-cf0bed2b3a203309d9aaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-4f20c8bd2dde845b499cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9100000000-393b5f734646352622f9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-0c45920f40546c2d8944JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-417774c01b748db1609dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9600000000-5583b6dc3ae583b8dab0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-729e6f5bdb0da3ed9dedJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified5.556 +/- 9.259 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified720500.448-3063806.859 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected and Quantified72595.645 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified41363.889 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified52827.658 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified136.585 +/- 69.263 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified95.249 +/- 98.948 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified17.6 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified24.7 (1.2-110.7) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified46.0 (1.2-118.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified23.0 (11.4-114.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified52.6 (38.8-71.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified2.933 +/- 2.099 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified9.9 +/- 5.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
    BloodDetected and Quantified186.111 +/- 95.370 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Uremia
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Campylobacter jejuni infection
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Clostridium difficile infection
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified0-3012051.907 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Treated celiac disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative Colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Intestinal infections
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Crohn's disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Treated celiac disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Crohn's disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified0.00197 (0.000166-0.00543) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified0.00204 (0.00108-0.00888) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified0.00461 (0.00106-0.0113) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Crohns disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Diarrhea-predominant IBS
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified5.14 +/- 2.998 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Hemodialysis
    1. De Smet R, Van Kaer J, Liebich H, Lesaffer G, Verstraete A, Dhondt A, Duym P, Lameire N, Vanholder R: Heparin-induced release of protein-bound solutes during hemodialysis is an in vitro artifact. Clin Chem. 2001 May;47(5):901-9. [PubMed:11325895 ]
    Uremia
    1. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Glorieux G, Argiles A, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Clark W, Cohen G, De Deyn PP, Deppisch R, Descamps-Latscha B, Henle T, Jorres A, Lemke HD, Massy ZA, Passlick-Deetjen J, Rodriguez M, Stegmayr B, Stenvinkel P, Tetta C, Wanner C, Zidek W: Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1934-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00924.x. [PubMed:12675874 ]
    Ulcerative colitis
    1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
    2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
    3. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
    4. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
    2. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
    Celiac disease
    1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
    Diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome
    1. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello Bde L, Ratcliffe NM, Probert CS: An investigation of fecal volatile organic metabolites in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58204. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058204. Epub 2013 Mar 13. [PubMed:23516449 ]
    Crohn's disease
    1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
    2. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
    Autism
    1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
    1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
    Enteritis
    1. Probert CS, Jones PR, Ratcliffe NM: A novel method for rapidly diagnosing the causes of diarrhoea. Gut. 2004 Jan;53(1):58-61. [PubMed:14684577 ]
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
    1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Cheng Y, Xie G, Chen T, Qiu Y, Zou X, Zheng M, Tan B, Feng B, Dong T, He P, Zhao L, Zhao A, Xu LX, Zhang Y, Jia W: Distinct urinary metabolic profile of human colorectal cancer. J Proteome Res. 2012 Feb 3;11(2):1354-63. doi: 10.1021/pr201001a. Epub 2011 Dec 28. [PubMed:22148915 ]
    2. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
    3. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB01688
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB008789
    KNApSAcK IDC00002645
    Chemspider ID13839082
    KEGG Compound IDC01468
    BioCyc IDCPD-108
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkP-cresol
    METLIN ID4236
    PubChem Compound2879
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID17847
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
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