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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:47 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 01:48:52 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002306
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0002162
  • HMDB02162
  • HMDB02306
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrochloric acid
DescriptionHydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. In a complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. They are part of the epithelial fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and of wide industrial use. Hydrochloric acid must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. Hydrochloric acid, or muriatic acid by its historical but still occasionally used name, has been an important and frequently used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800. Hydrogen chloride, also known under the name HCl, is a highly corrosive and toxic colorless gas that forms white fumes on contact with humidity. These fumes consist of hydrochloric acid which forms when hydrogen chloride dissolves in water. The hydrogen chloride molecule HCl is a simple diatomic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected with a covalent single bond. Since the chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, the covalent bond between the atoms is quite polar. Hydrogen chloride forms corrosive hydrochloric acid on contact with body tissue. Inhalation of the fumes can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory system failure, and death. Skin contact can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Hydrogen chloride may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[HCL]ChEBI
Chlorure d'hydrogeneChEBI
ChlorwasserstoffChEBI
cloruro De hidrogenoChEBI
HClChEBI
HydrochlorideChEBI
HydrogenchloridChEBI
WasserstoffchloridChEBI
HydrochlateGenerator
Hydrochlic acidGenerator
Anhydrous hydrochloric acidHMDB
Aqueous hydrogen chlorideHMDB
ChloraneHMDB
Chlorohydric acidHMDB
HCL]HMDB
Hydrochloric acid (JP15/nf)HMDB
Hydrochloric acid gasHMDB
Hydrogen chloric anhydrousHMDB
Hydrogen chloride (acid)HMDB
Hydrogen chloride (HCL)HMDB
Hydrogen chloride anhydrousHMDB
Marine acidHMDB
Muriatic acidHMDB
Spirit OF saltHMDB
Acid, muriaticMeSH
Acid, hydrochloricMeSH
Hydrogen chlorideMeSH
Chloride, hydrogenMeSH
Chemical FormulaClH
Average Molecular Weight36.461
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight35.976677739
IUPAC Namehydrogen chloride
Traditional Namehydrogen chloride
CAS Registry Number7647-01-0
SMILES
Cl
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/ClH/h1H
InChI KeyVEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as halogen hydrides. These are inorganic compounds in which the heaviest atom bonded to a hydrogen atom is a halogen.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHalogen organides
Sub ClassHalogen hydrides
Direct ParentHalogen hydrides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halogen hydride
  • Inorganic hydride
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Role

Biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity6.42 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-9c67ad6c6de9138449ddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0a4i-0000009000-8651ed5a563be0ad942fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0a4i-0000009000-6193af2f15253417208cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-014i-0000900000-5818c00db6f91eb3e74dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-942cba57b20ee16a420dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-942cba57b20ee16a420dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-942cba57b20ee16a420dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-5849201eeb63a76419cfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-5849201eeb63a76419cfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-5849201eeb63a76419cfView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB016076
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID307
KEGG Compound IDC01327
BioCyc IDHCL
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHydrochloric_acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound313
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17883
References
Synthesis ReferenceSuzuta, Tetsuya; Mori, Yasuhiko; Abe, Tadashi. method to produce chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2005), 13 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 23 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular weight:
83867.71
Reactions
Hydrochloric acid + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Ion → HClO + Waterdetails
Hydrochloric acid + Hydrogen peroxide → HClO + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
P28161
Molecular weight:
25744.395
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
P09488
Molecular weight:
25711.555
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Significant glutathione conjugating activity is found only with the model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB).
Gene Name:
GSTK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Q3
Molecular weight:
31565.605
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Also functions as a glutathione peroxidase.
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
O14880
Molecular weight:
16516.185
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Molecular weight:
26559.32
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
P08263
Molecular weight:
25630.785
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathione peroxidase activity with T-butyl and cumene hydroperoxides. Is able to catalyze the glutathione dependent oxygenation of dichloroacetic acid to glyoxylic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Molecular weight:
17895.68
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.
Gene Name:
MGST1
Uniprot ID:
P10620
Molecular weight:
17598.45
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.
Gene Name:
GSTM4
Uniprot ID:
Q03013
Molecular weight:
25561.095
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 23 proteins in total.