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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:24 UTC
Update Date2019-07-25 18:12:24 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002994
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0094689
  • HMDB02994
  • HMDB94689
Metabolite Identification
Common NameErythritol
DescriptionErythritol occurs widely in nature and has been found to occur naturally in several foods including wine, sake, beer, watermelon, pear, grape, and soy sauce. Evidence indicates that erythritol also exists endogenously in the tissues and body fluids of humans and animals. Erythritol is absorbed from the proximal intestine by passive diffusion in a manner similar to that of many low molecular weight organic molecules which do not have associated active transport systems. The rate of absorption is related to their molecular size; erythritol, a 4-carbon molecule, passes through the intestinal membranes at a faster rate than larger molecules such as mannitol or glucose. In diabetics, erythritol has also been shown to be rapidly absorbed and excreted unchanged in the urine. Following absorption, ingested erythritol is rapidly distributed throughout the body and has been reported to occur in hepatocytes, pancreatic cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Erythritol also has been reported to cross the human placenta and to pass slowly from the plasma into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (PMID: 9862657 , Food and Chemical Toxicology (1998), 36(12), 1139-1174.). Erythritol is found to be associated with ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Data?1563860739
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3S)-Butane-1,2,3,4-tetrolChEBI
ErythritChEBI
ErythriteChEBI
Erythro-tetritolChEBI
ErythrolChEBI
L-ErythritolChEBI
MESO-erythritolChEBI
MesoerythritolChEBI
PhyciteChEBI
PhycitolChEBI
1,2,3,4-ButanetetrolHMDB
AntierythriteHMDB
ButanetetrolHMDB
C*EridexHMDB
ErythroglucinHMDB
I-erythritolHMDB
L-(-)-ThreitolHMDB
L-ThreitolHMDB
Lichen sugarHMDB
meso-EythritolHMDB
PayciteHMDB
TetrahydroxybutaneHMDB
1,2,3,4-TetrahydroxybutaneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H10O4
Average Molecular Weight122.1198
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight122.057908808
IUPAC Name(2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
Traditional Nameerythritol
CAS Registry Number149-32-6
SMILES
OC[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H10O4/c5-1-3(7)4(8)2-6/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4+
InChI KeyUNXHWFMMPAWVPI-ZXZARUISSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point121.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility610 mg/mL at 22 °CNot Available
LogP-2.29HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1160 g/LALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-2.5ChemAxon
logS0.98ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.92 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.48 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gba-0930000000-dc2d1a78c7a0457d1e5eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0gb9-0950000000-0284cb64008968df5b85JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gba-0960000000-e3c06af410ada4c51c35JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gba-0930000000-dc2d1a78c7a0457d1e5eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gb9-0950000000-0284cb64008968df5b85JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-83a8654b82fe1d2a6b5eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ab9-7249000000-2b2a68afd8e4a9b09f96JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05tr-9500000000-c66e9c2cdca98e1a3073JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-8c8289ff9dce6ace80fbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-9a74ea83fa64739762c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-2900000000-b21b0229b3cca7a445e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03k9-9500000000-793c9703aa07422f1014JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01pd-9000000000-c17f1bba91d64dbd9f41JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-7900000000-12421f1c391587323fb6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9400000000-45979a06d5c9cf0240d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-e4d3d8da279144816016JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01ox-9000000000-3ac2b797c104b943b1d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Epidermis
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.10 +/- 1.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<5.738 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.3 (0.0-5.0) uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified37.0 (29.0-45.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12 - 33 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified60.0 +/- 23.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified149 +/- 30 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified93 +/- 28 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified51 +/- 18 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.4 (6.8-64.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified80.328 +/- 114.754 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Uremia
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0 - 5.0 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothRibose-5-Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Uremia
  1. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Glorieux G, Argiles A, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Clark W, Cohen G, De Deyn PP, Deppisch R, Descamps-Latscha B, Henle T, Jorres A, Lemke HD, Massy ZA, Passlick-Deetjen J, Rodriguez M, Stegmayr B, Stenvinkel P, Tetta C, Wanner C, Zidek W: Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1934-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00924.x. [PubMed:12675874 ]
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency
  1. Huck JH, Verhoeven NM, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Jakobs C, van der Knaap MS: Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency: new inborn error in the pentose phosphate pathway associated with a slowly progressive leukoencephalopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Apr;74(4):745-51. Epub 2004 Feb 25. [PubMed:14988808 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 608611 (Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency)
  • 114500 (Colorectal cancer)
DrugBank IDDB04481
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000371
KNApSAcK IDC00001161
Chemspider ID192963
KEGG Compound IDC00503
BioCyc IDERYTHRITOL
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkErythritol
METLIN ID140
PubChem Compound222285
PDB IDMRY
ChEBI ID17113
References
Synthesis ReferenceNew Synthesis of Natural and of Racemic Erythrite. Pariselle, H. Compt. rend. (1910), 150 1343-6.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Prandi D: Canalicular bile production in man. Eur J Clin Invest. 1975 Feb;5(1):1-6. [PubMed:1122919 ]
  2. Makinen KK, Isotupa KP, Kivilompolo T, Makinen PL, Toivanen J, Soderling E: Comparison of erythritol and xylitol saliva stimulants in the control of dental plaque and mutans streptococci. Caries Res. 2001 Mar-Apr;35(2):129-35. [PubMed:11275673 ]
  3. Hino H, Kobayasi T, Asboe-Hansen G: Desmosome formation in normal human epidermal cell culture. Acta Derm Venereol. 1982;62(3):185-91. [PubMed:6179356 ]
  4. Bornet FR, Blayo A, Dauchy F, Slama G: Gastrointestinal response and plasma and urine determinations in human subjects given erythritol. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1996 Oct;24(2 Pt 2):S296-302. [PubMed:8933646 ]
  5. Noda K, Nakayama K, Oku T: Serum glucose and insulin levels and erythritol balance after oral administration of erythritol in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 Apr;48(4):286-92. [PubMed:8039489 ]
  6. Makinen KK, Saag M, Isotupa KP, Olak J, Nommela R, Soderling E, Makinen PL: Similarity of the effects of erythritol and xylitol on some risk factors of dental caries. Caries Res. 2005 May-Jun;39(3):207-15. [PubMed:15914983 ]
  7. Verhoeven NM, Huck JH, Roos B, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Douwes AC, van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C: Transaldolase deficiency: liver cirrhosis associated with a new inborn error in the pentose phosphate pathway. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 May;68(5):1086-92. Epub 2001 Mar 27. [PubMed:11283793 ]
  8. Servo C, Palo J, Pitkanen E: Gas chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric identification of polyols in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Acta Neurol Scand. 1977 Aug;56(2):104-10. [PubMed:899714 ]
  9. Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ: Studies on the effects of C. coli endotoxin on canalicular bile formation in the isolated perfused rat liver. J Lab Clin Med. 1977 Mar;89(3):471-82. [PubMed:320281 ]
  10. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  11. Munro IC, Berndt WO, Borzelleca JF, Flamm G, Lynch BS, Kennepohl E, Bar EA, Modderman J: Erythritol: an interpretive summary of biochemical, metabolic, toxicological and clinical data. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Dec;36(12):1139-74. [PubMed:9862657 ]