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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-01 23:04:33 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00056
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBeta-Alanine
DescriptionBeta-alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid - the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5) which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 2-Carboxyethylamine
  2. 3-Amino-Propanoate
  3. 3-Amino-Propanoic acid
  4. 3-Aminopropanoate
  5. 3-Aminopropanoic acid
  6. 3-Aminopropionate
  7. 3-Aminopropionic acid
  8. Abufene
  9. B-Alanine
  10. b-Aminopropanoate
  11. b-Aminopropanoic acid
  12. b-Aminopropionate
  13. b-Aminopropionic acid
  14. beta Alanine
  15. beta-Alanine
  16. beta-Aminopropanoate
  17. beta-Aminopropanoic acid
  18. beta-Aminopropionate
  19. beta-Aminopropionic acid
  20. Omega-Aminopropionate
  21. Omega-Aminopropionic acid
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight89.0932
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight89.047678473
IUPAC Name3-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional Nameβ-alanine
CAS Registry Number107-95-9
SMILES
NCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c4-2-1-3(5)6/h1-2,4H2,(H,5,6)
InChI KeyUCMIRNVEIXFBKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassBeta Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Biogenic amines(KEGG)
  • Other amino acids(KEGG)
  • amino acid zwitterion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,3 Aminoalcohol
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentBeta Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point200 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility545.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05TSAI,RS ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility494.0ALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.7 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.62 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067map00250
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016map00640
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046map00240
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.0 (1.3-20.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.8 +/- 2.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.00 (0.00-10.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.00 +/- 0.85 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.76 +/- 0.74 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.0 +/- 0.85 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.76 +/- 0.74 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.024 +/- 0.013 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.03 (0.00-0.06) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.01 +/- 0.448 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.02 +/- 1.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.14 +/- 1.34 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.48 +/- 0.851 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.71 +/- 0.74 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4 +/- 3.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.9 (3.4-13.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.27 +/- 0.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.23 +/- 0.73 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00068 +/- 0.00049 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0007 +/- 0.00075 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.0 (0.9-6.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.7 +/- 1.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGABA transaminase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified107.5 (15.00-200.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHyper beta-alaninemia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.036 +/- 0.034 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.48 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGABA transaminase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified22.5 (0.00-45.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHyper beta-alaninemia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.84 +/- 1.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.33 +/- 1.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.05 +/- 0.86 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 +/- 1.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0-2.3 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothGABA transaminase deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  1. Van Kuilenburg AB, Stroomer AE, Van Lenthe H, Abeling NG, Van Gennip AH: New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid? Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):119-24. Pubmed: 14705962
Hyper beta-alaninemia
  1. MetaGene
Gaba-transaminase deficiency
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 274270 (Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency)
  • 613163 (Gaba-transaminase deficiency)
  • 237400 (Hyper beta-alaninemia)
DrugBank IDDB03107
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002253
KNApSAcK IDC00001333
Chemspider ID234
KEGG Compound IDC00099
BioCyc IDB-ALANINE
BiGG ID33848
Wikipedia Linkbeta-Alanine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00056
Metagene LinkHMDB00056
METLIN ID5119
PubChem Compound239
PDB IDBAL
ChEBI ID16958
References
Synthesis ReferenceBuc, Saul R.; Ford, Jared H.; Wise, E. C. Improved synthesis of b-alanine. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1945), 67 92-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. van Kuilenburg AB, Meinsma R, Beke E, Assmann B, Ribes A, Lorente I, Busch R, Mayatepek E, Abeling NG, van Cruchten A, Stroomer AE, van Lenthe H, Zoetekouw L, Kulik W, Hoffmann GF, Voit T, Wevers RA, Rutsch F, van Gennip AH: beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency: an inborn error of pyrimidine degradation associated with neurological abnormalities. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Nov 15;13(22):2793-801. Epub 2004 Sep 22. Pubmed: 15385443
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  3. Van Kuilenburg AB, Stroomer AE, Van Lenthe H, Abeling NG, Van Gennip AH: New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid? Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):119-24. Pubmed: 14705962
  4. Malet-Martino MC, Bernadou J, Martino R, Armand JP: 19F NMR spectrometry evidence for bile acid conjugates of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine as the main biliary metabolites of antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1988 Jan-Feb;16(1):78-84. Pubmed: 2894959
  5. Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, Babenkova IV, Lyubitsky OB, Rebrova OYu, Boldyrev AA, Vladimirov YuA: Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(1):89-99. Pubmed: 9829262
  6. Aznar J, Gilabert J, Estelles A, Fernandez MA, Villa P, Aznar JA: Evaluation of the soluble fibrin monomer complexes and other coagulation parameters in obstetric patients. Thromb Res. 1982 Sep 15;27(6):691-701. Pubmed: 7179210
  7. Champion EE, Mann SJ, Glazier JD, Jones CJ, Rawlings JM, Sibley CP, Greenwood SL: System beta and system A amino acid transporters in the feline endotheliochorial placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Dec;287(6):R1369-79. Epub 2004 Jul 29. Pubmed: 15284084
  8. Kuo KC, Cole TF, Gehrke CW, Waalkes TP, Borek E: Dual-column cation-exchange chromatographic method for beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine in biological samples. Clin Chem. 1978 Aug;24(8):1373-80. Pubmed: 679461
  9. Heggie GD, Sommadossi JP, Cross DS, Huster WJ, Diasio RB: Clinical pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in plasma, urine, and bile. Cancer Res. 1987 Apr 15;47(8):2203-6. Pubmed: 3829006
  10. Gibson KM, Schor DS, Gupta M, Guerand WS, Senephansiri H, Burlingame TG, Bartels H, Hogema BM, Bottiglieri T, Froestl W, Snead OC, Grompe M, Jakobs C: Focal neurometabolic alterations in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. J Neurochem. 2002 Apr;81(1):71-9. Pubmed: 12067239
  11. Holm B, Nilsen DW, Kierulf P, Godal HC: Purification and characterization of 3 fibrinogens with different molecular weights obtained from normal human plasma. Thromb Res. 1985 Jan 1;37(1):165-76. Pubmed: 3983897
  12. Chen Y, Getchell TV, Sparks DL, Getchell ML: Cellular localization of carnosinase in the human nasal mucosa. Acta Otolaryngol. 1994 Mar;114(2):193-8. Pubmed: 8203202
  13. Milasta S, Pediani J, Appelbe S, Trim S, Wyatt M, Cox P, Fidock M, Milligan G: Interactions between the Mas-related receptors MrgD and MrgE alter signalling and trafficking of MrgD. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;69(2):479-91. Epub 2005 Nov 9. Pubmed: 16282220
  14. Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. 2006 May;30(3):279-89. Epub 2006 Mar 24. Pubmed: 16554972
  15. Hibbard JU, Pridjian G, Whitington PF, Moawad AH: Taurine transport in the in vitro perfused human placenta. Pediatr Res. 1990 Jan;27(1):80-4. Pubmed: 2296474
  16. Karmanskii IM: [Effect of pepsin on low density serum lipoproteins] Vopr Med Khim. 1977 Jul-Aug;23(4):530-4. Pubmed: 200005
  17. Johnson MR, Barnes S, Sweeny DJ, Diasio RB: 2-Fluoro-beta-alanine, a previously unrecognized substrate for bile acid coenzyme A:amino acid:N-acyltransferase from human liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Sep 15;40(6):1241-6. Pubmed: 2119585

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular weight:
56438.405
Reactions
Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. This protein preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. It may play a role in the oxidation of toxic aldehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID:
P30838
Molecular weight:
50394.57
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Preferential hydrolysis of the beta-Ala-|-His dipeptide (carnosine), and also anserine, Xaa-|-His dipeptides and other dipeptides including homocarnosine
Gene Name:
CNDP1
Uniprot ID:
Q96KN2
Molecular weight:
56691.6
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular weight:
42623.62
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. Metabolizes also benzaldehyde. Low activity towards acetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. May not metabolize short chain aldehydes. May use both NADP(+) and NAD(+) as cofactors. May have a protective role against the cytotoxicity induced by lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH3B1
Uniprot ID:
P43353
Molecular weight:
51839.245
Reactions
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
Specific function:
Converts N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to, respectively, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine, ammonia and carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
UPB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBR1
Molecular weight:
43165.705
Reactions
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + CO(2) + Ammoniadetails
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD2
Uniprot ID:
Q05329
Molecular weight:
65410.77
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q99259
Molecular weight:
66896.065
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Required for the uptake of taurine. Transports both taurine and beta-alanine which requires sodium ions. Chloride ions are necessary for optimal uptake.
Gene Name:
SLC6A6
Uniprot ID:
P31641
Molecular weight:
69829.405
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of carnosine and homocarnosine. Carnosine is synthesized more efficiently than homocarnosine.
Gene Name:
CARNS1
Uniprot ID:
A5YM72
Molecular weight:
101318.725
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carnosinedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Lysine + Beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + beta-Alanyl-L-lysinedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Arginine + Beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + beta-Alanyl-L-argininedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Carnosinedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + 3-Methylhistidine + Beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Anserinedetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular weight:
55492.1
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed: 11827462