You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:51:59 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14651
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDextrothyroxine
DescriptionThe major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. [PubChem]
Sodium dextrothyroxineMeSH
D ThyroxineMeSH
D-T4 Thyroid hormoneMeSH
Dextrothyroxine sodiumMeSH
Chemical FormulaC15H11I4NO4
Average Molecular Weight776.87
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight776.686681525
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid
Traditional Namedextrothyroxine
CAS Registry Number51-49-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. These are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • Diphenylether
  • Diaryl ether
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • 2-halophenol
  • 2-iodophenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Halobenzene
  • Iodobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl iodide
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoiodide
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary amine
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point235 - 236 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.009 g/LNot Available
LogP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.009 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.78 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity126.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability49.31 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0f89-4002002900-0d489fed1cb888a2d9d0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01si-0000000900-524d052a32c1fe4b904dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0000001900-553f6a4045ef2241fd85View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-0009000000-d2431d885a79bb80b7a5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0000000900-137b5f8f48031bc9aa4fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03fr-0004001900-db1d8cdb93785d786382View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0h9u-7029014300-3bd9620b0c6a8dd20c93View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00509 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00509 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00509
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID8402
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDextrothyroxine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound8730
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30659
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. [PubMed:11901210 ]


General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Visser TJ: The elemental importance of sufficient iodine intake: a trace is not enough. Endocrinology. 2006 May;147(5):2095-7. [PubMed:16617153 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
High affinity receptor for triiodothyronine
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [PubMed:17315033 ]
  2. Gonzalez-Sancho JM, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A: Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Mar 31;192(2):121-32. [PubMed:12668276 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  4. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  5. Yen PM, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker RL, Weiss RE, Chassande O, Samarut J, Refetoff S, Meltzer PS: Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun;4(6):581-7. [PubMed:12776178 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  7. Wu SY, Sadow PM, Refetoff S, Weiss RE: Tissue responses to thyroid hormone in a kindred with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring a commonly occurring mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453T). J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):85-94. [PubMed:16099238 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. High affinity receptor for triiodothyronine
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Jiang W, Miyamoto T, Kakizawa T, Sakuma T, Nishio S, Takeda T, Suzuki S, Hashizume K: Expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; triiodothyronine increases the expression of lipogenic enzyme and triglyceride accumulation. J Endocrinol. 2004 Aug;182(2):295-302. [PubMed:15283690 ]
  2. Kariv R, Enden A, Zvibel I, Rosner G, Brill S, Shafritz DA, Halpern Z, Oren R: Triiodothyronine and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induce expression of HGF in an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line. Liver Int. 2003 Jun;23(3):187-93. [PubMed:12955882 ]
  3. Mai W, Janier MF, Allioli N, Quignodon L, Chuzel T, Flamant F, Samarut J: Thyroid hormone receptor alpha is a molecular switch of cardiac function between fetal and postnatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10332-7. Epub 2004 Jul 6. [PubMed:15240882 ]
  4. Sciaudone MP, Yao L, Schaller M, Zinn SA, Freake HC: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhances thyroid hormone action by a transcriptional mechanism. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Summer;99(1-3):219-31. [PubMed:15235154 ]
  5. Timmer DC, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM: Triiodothyronine affects the alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor alpha mRNA. J Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;179(2):217-25. [PubMed:14596673 ]
  6. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [PubMed:17315033 ]