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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2019-01-11 19:34:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015091
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15091
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrocodone
DescriptionHydrocodone is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a narcotic analgesic related to codeine, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant. [PubChem]Hydrocodone acts as a weak agonist at OP1, OP2, and OP3 opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Hydrocodone primarily affects OP3 receptors, which are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as modulators, both positive and negative, of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids such as hydrocodone also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
Structure
Data?1547235299
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-DihydrocodeinoneChEBI
4,5-alpha-Epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-oneChEBI
DihydrocodeinoneChEBI
HidrocodonaChEBI
HydrocodonChEBI
HydrocodonumChEBI
HydroconeChEBI
HydroconumChEBI
IdrocodoneChEBI
4,5-a-Epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-oneGenerator
4,5-α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-oneGenerator
HyconMeSH
CodinovoMeSH
HycodanMeSH
Hydrocodone tartrate (1:1), hydrate (2:5)MeSH
Knoll brand OF hydrocodone tartrateMeSH
Nourypharma brand OF hydrocodone tartrateMeSH
Robins brand OF hydrocodone tartrateMeSH
Wyeth brand OF hydrocodone tartrateMeSH
DicodidMeSH
Du pont brand OF hydrocodone tartrateMeSH
HydrocodeinonebitartrateMeSH
Hydrocodone bitartrateMeSH
HydroconMeSH
RobidoneMeSH
Chemical FormulaC18H21NO3
Average Molecular Weight299.3642
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight299.152143543
IUPAC Name(1S,5R,13R,17R)-10-methoxy-4-methyl-12-oxa-4-azapentacyclo[9.6.1.0¹,¹³.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁷,¹⁸]octadeca-7(18),8,10-trien-14-one
Traditional Namehydrocodone
CAS Registry Number125-29-1
SMILES
[H][C@@]12OC3=C(OC)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])CCC2=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H21NO3/c1-19-8-7-18-11-4-5-13(20)17(18)22-16-14(21-2)6-3-10(15(16)18)9-12(11)19/h3,6,11-12,17H,4-5,7-9H2,1-2H3/t11-,12+,17-,18-/m0/s1
InChI KeyLLPOLZWFYMWNKH-CMKMFDCUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassMorphinans
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentMorphinans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Morphinan
  • Phenanthrene
  • Isoquinolone
  • Tetralin
  • Coumaran
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Aralkylamine
  • Piperidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Ketone
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point198 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.8 g/LNot Available
LogP1.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.8 g/LALOGPS
logP2.13ALOGPS
logP1.96ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.77 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity82.74 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-2090000000-117774746c444c4e0488JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0009000000-f21858df54194757e2d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0009000000-9b129b5d29df52345272JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0649000000-82623b23b75f0a0b232dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0920000000-b67ff5a32d0ddd40c4c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-006t-0900000000-0277ba7435a4081ab333JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0g6v-0900000000-b335c52fad1274cd28cbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0029000000-1c3fa3b4b1357be62616JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-1098000000-f000ea847c9e68994f23JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-8090000000-dd4e0e79adfda3b828ccJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-d9ab1faf7327dd439b2cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-2b3b1b2934a4489426fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-003r-1190000000-666f47c119770568eaf1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0005-6970000000-3ba3e105098639cd6091JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00956 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00956 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00956
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4447623
KEGG Compound IDC08024
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHydrocodone
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5284569
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID5779
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Hutchinson MR, Menelaou A, Foster DJ, Coller JK, Somogyi AA: CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 involvement in the primary oxidative metabolism of hydrocodone by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;57(3):287-97. [PubMed:14998425 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Hutchinson MR, Menelaou A, Foster DJ, Coller JK, Somogyi AA: CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 involvement in the primary oxidative metabolism of hydrocodone by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;57(3):287-97. [PubMed:14998425 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Highly stereoselective. receptor for enkephalins
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular weight:
40412.3
References
  1. Peckham EM, Traynor JR: Comparison of the antinociceptive response to morphine and morphine-like compounds in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Mar;316(3):1195-201. Epub 2005 Nov 16. [PubMed:16291875 ]
  2. Thompson CM, Wojno H, Greiner E, May EL, Rice KC, Selley DE: Activation of G-proteins by morphine and codeine congeners: insights to the relevance of O- and N-demethylated metabolites at mu- and delta-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):547-54. Epub 2003 Nov 4. [PubMed:14600248 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Receptor for beta-endorphin
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular weight:
44778.9
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Kotzer CJ, Hay DW, Dondio G, Giardina G, Petrillo P, Underwood DC: The antitussive activity of delta-opioid receptor stimulation in guinea pigs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Feb;292(2):803-9. [PubMed:10640321 ]
  3. Peckham EM, Traynor JR: Comparison of the antinociceptive response to morphine and morphine-like compounds in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Mar;316(3):1195-201. Epub 2005 Nov 16. [PubMed:16291875 ]
  4. Hennies HH, Friderichs E, Schneider J: Receptor binding, analgesic and antitussive potency of tramadol and other selected opioids. Arzneimittelforschung. 1988 Jul;38(7):877-80. [PubMed:2849950 ]
  5. Thompson CM, Wojno H, Greiner E, May EL, Rice KC, Selley DE: Activation of G-proteins by morphine and codeine congeners: insights to the relevance of O- and N-demethylated metabolites at mu- and delta-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):547-54. Epub 2003 Nov 4. [PubMed:14600248 ]
  6. Stoops WW, Hatton KW, Lofwall MR, Nuzzo PA, Walsh SL: Intravenous oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine in recreational opioid users: abuse potential and relative potencies. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Oct;212(2):193-203. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-1942-4. Epub 2010 Jul 28. [PubMed:20665209 ]
  7. Walsh SL, Nuzzo PA, Lofwall MR, Holtman JR Jr: The relative abuse liability of oral oxycodone, hydrocodone and hydromorphone assessed in prescription opioid abusers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008 Dec 1;98(3):191-202. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Jul 7. [PubMed:18606504 ]