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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2019-01-11 19:35:03 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15116
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhysostigmine
DescriptionA cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity. [PubChem]
Eserine sulfateHMDB
Eserolein, methylcarbamateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC15H21N3O2
Average Molecular Weight275.3461
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight275.163376931
IUPAC Name(3aS,8aR)-1,3a,8-trimethyl-1H,2H,3H,3aH,8H,8aH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]indol-5-yl N-methylcarbamate
Traditional Namephysostigmine
CAS Registry Number57-47-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrroloindoles. These are compounds containing a pyrroloindole moiety, which is a tricyclic heterocycle which consists of a pyrrole ring fused to an indole. Pyrrole is 5-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. Indole is a bicyclic compound consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassPyrroloindoles
Direct ParentPyrroloindoles
Alternative Parents
  • Pyrroloindole
  • Indole
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Pyrrole
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point105.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.99 g/LNot Available
LogP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.99 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.59ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area44.81 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity78.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability30.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-1590000000-508da23acfe2c8a2f568JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ea-6790000000-c7dad12610a8d73fb915JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-1590000000-508da23acfe2c8a2f568JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ea-6790000000-c7dad12610a8d73fb915JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03ea-3290000000-ff0ad85b80701aa56609JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-03dj-2900000000-b9d164a9a3afaf8a17cfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-00or-0090000000-1f322550abc600bd72a9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-014i-0490000000-e4a06a93b3b18d738157JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-d9ddac609ada184032acJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-ef8f7c2ddbdba70fe1d3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-daf3030c2c85de1db72eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-8a9155530ad88f483e2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-03dj-2900000000-b9d164a9a3afaf8a17cfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00or-3090000000-4d4b520473a9f2047c89JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-3090000000-a96a130ca2964214aa50JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0pdi-9440000000-97f447b7b63d60cd222bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0ab9-8090000000-c4df4baeb1b2ed495e64JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-6090000000-03d5fd62a0bf34c26c01JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9380000000-7df539c4225faf494471JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00981 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00981 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00981
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00001757
Chemspider ID5763
KEGG Compound IDC06535
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhysostigmine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5983
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27953
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available


General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Nguyen PV, Aniksztejn L, Catarsi S, Drapeau P: Maturation of neuromuscular transmission during early development in zebrafish. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Jun;81(6):2852-61. [PubMed:10368402 ]
  2. Tuovinen K, Kaliste-Korhonen E, Raushel FM, Hanninen O: Success of pyridostigmine, physostigmine, eptastigmine and phosphotriesterase treatments in acute sarin intoxication. Toxicology. 1999 Jun 15;134(2-3):169-78. [PubMed:10403635 ]
  3. Blasina MF, Faria AC, Gardino PF, Hokoc JN, Almeida OM, de Mello FG, Arruti C, Dajas F: Evidence for a noncholinergic function of acetylcholinesterase during development of chicken retina as shown by fasciculin. Cell Tissue Res. 2000 Feb;299(2):173-84. [PubMed:10741458 ]
  4. Monnet-Tschudi F, Zurich MG, Schilter B, Costa LG, Honegger P: Maturation-dependent effects of chlorpyrifos and parathion and their oxygen analogs on acetylcholinesterase and neuronal and glial markers in aggregating brain cell cultures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;165(3):175-83. [PubMed:10873710 ]
  5. Bolognesi ML, Andrisano V, Bartolini M, Minarini A, Rosini M, Tumiatti V, Melchiorre C: Hexahydrochromeno[4,3-b]pyrrole derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2001 Jan 4;44(1):105-9. [PubMed:11141093 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]