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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-01 23:16:25 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00182
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Lysine
DescriptionL-lysine is an essential amino acid. Normal requirements for lysine have been found to be about 8 g per day or 12 mg/kg in adults. Children and infants need more- 44 mg/kg per day for an eleven to-twelve-year old, and 97 mg/kg per day for three-to six-month old. Lysine is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids. Lysine is high in foods such as wheat germ, cottage cheese and chicken. Of meat products, wild game and pork have the highest concentration of lysine. Fruits and vegetables contain little lysine, except avocados. Normal lysine metabolism is dependent upon many nutrients including niacin, vitamin B6, riboflavin, vitamin C, glutamic acid and iron. Excess arginine antagonizes lysine. Several inborn errors of lysine metabolism are known. Most are marked by mental retardation with occasional diverse symptoms such as absence of secondary sex characteristics, undescended testes, abnormal facial structure, anemia, obesity, enlarged liver and spleen, and eye muscle imbalance. Lysine also may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although high protein diets result in loss of large amounts of calcium in urine, so does lysine deficiency. Lysine may be an adjunct therapy because it reduces calcium losses in urine. Lysine deficiency also may result in immunodeficiency. Requirements for this amino acid are probably increased by stress. Lysine toxicity has not occurred with oral doses in humans. Lysine dosages are presently too small and may fail to reach the concentrations necessary to prove potential therapeutic applications. Lysine metabolites, amino caproic acid and carnitine have already shown their therapeutic potential. Thirty grams daily of amino caproic acid has been used as an initial daily dose in treating blood clotting disorders, indicating that the proper doses of lysine, its precursor, have yet to be used in medicine. Low lysine levels have been found in patients with Parkinson's, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, asthma and depression. The exact significance of these levels is unclear, yet lysine therapy can normalize the level and has been associated with improvement of some patients with these conditions. Abnormally elevated hydroxylysines have been found in virtually all chronic degenerative diseases and coumadin therapy. The levels of this stress marker may be improved by high doses of vitamin C. Lysine is particularly useful in therapy for marasmus (wasting) and herpes simplex. It stops the growth of herpes simplex in culture, and has helped to reduce the number and occurrence of cold sores in clinical studies. Dosing has not been adequately studied, but beneficial clinical effects occur in doses ranging from 100 mg to 4 g a day. Higher doses may also be useful, and toxicity has not been reported in doses as high as 8 g per day. Diets high in lysine and low in arginine can be useful in the prevention and treatment of herpes. Some researchers think herpes simplex virus is involved in many other diseases related to cranial nerves such as migraines, Bell's palsy and Meniere's disease. Herpes blister fluid will produce fatal encephalitis in the rabbit. (http://www.dcnutrition.com).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (+)-S-Lysine
  2. (S)-2,6-diamino-Hexanoate
  3. (S)-2,6-diamino-Hexanoic acid
  4. (S)-2,6-Diaminohexanoate
  5. (S)-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid
  6. (S)-a,e-Diaminocaproate
  7. (S)-a,e-Diaminocaproic acid
  8. (S)-Lysine
  9. 2,6-Diaminohexanoate
  10. 2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid
  11. 6-Amino-Aminutrin
  12. 6-Amino-L-Norleucine
  13. a-Lysine
  14. alpha-Lysine
  15. Aminutrin
  16. h-Lys-oh
  17. L-(+)-Lysine
  18. L-2,6-Diainohexanoate
  19. L-2,6-Diainohexanoic acid
  20. L-2,6-Diaminocaproate
  21. L-2,6-Diaminocaproic acid
  22. L-Lys
  23. Lys
  24. Lysine
  25. Lysine acid
Chemical FormulaC6H14N2O2
Average Molecular Weight146.1876
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight146.105527702
IUPAC Name(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
Traditional NameL-lysine
CAS Registry Number56-87-1
SMILES
NCCCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H14N2O2/c7-4-2-1-3-5(8)6(9)10/h5H,1-4,7-8H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyKDXKERNSBIXSRK-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassAmino Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Amino Fatty Acids
  • Common amino acids(KEGG)
  • L-alpha-amino acid(ChEBI)
  • Organic Compounds
  • Straight Chain Fatty Acids
  • lysine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Polyamine
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentAlpha Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Component of Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
  • Component of Lysine biosynthesis
  • Essential amino acids
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point224.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105.0ALOGPS
logP-3.8ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.01 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Biotin MetabolismSMP00066map00780
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Lysine DegradationSMP00037map00310
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified190.0 +/- 60.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified164.0 +/- 28.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified198.0 +/- 31.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified183.0 +/- 34.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified434.0 +/- 23.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified178.6 +/- 58.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified188.0 (156.0-220.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified21.7 +/- 3.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified29.0 +/- 13.0 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified27.7 +/- 8.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified31.5 +/- 5.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified25.7 +/- 5.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified23.9 (18.1-29.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified59.20 +/- 46.76 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified45.1 +/- 45.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified19.2 +/- 12.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.8 +/- 5.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.2 +/- 4.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.2 +/- 3.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified37.76 +/- 18.10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.7 +/- 6.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified31.45 +/- 52.32 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.0 (7.0-29.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.42-75.29 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9(2.105-19.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified17.2 (3.7-51.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.28 +/- 5.34 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.9 (0.17-1.84) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified32.0 +/- 27.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified29.0 +/- 21.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
      • Geigy Scientific ...
      • West Cadwell, N.J...
      • Basel, Switzerlan...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified17.9 (3.6-56.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified4.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified128.2 +/- 55.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
    BloodDetected and Quantified216.7 +/- 54.5 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified128.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothRefractory localization-related epilepsy (RLE) details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified44.6 +/- 10.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified26.9 +/- 11.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified21.9 +/- 6.2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Crohn’s Disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative Colitis
    details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified45.55 +/- 15.63 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified41.71 +/- 22.55 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified37.38 +/- 19.11 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified2750.0 (500.0-5000.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCarbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1075.0 (150.0-2000.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCystinuria details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0039 - 0.0116 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
    UrineDetected and Quantified5.5 +/- 1.74 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified600.00 (200.00-1000.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothHyperdibasic aminoaciduria I details
    UrineDetected and Quantified67.5 (10.00-125.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothLysinuric protein intolerance details
    UrineDetected and Quantified101 +/- 13 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPropionic acidemia details
    UrineDetected and Quantified452.1 +/- 60.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
    UrineDetected and Quantified321.8 +/- 15.4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothTyrosinemia I details
    UrineDetected and Quantified397.5 +/- 16.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAminoaciduria details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
    Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency
    1. MetaGene
    Cystinuria
    1. MetaGene
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    Lysinuric protein intolerance
    1. MetaGene
    Refractory localization-related epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    Hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I
    1. MetaGene
    Associated OMIM IDs
    • 104300 (Alzheimer's disease)
    • 237300 (Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency)
    • 220100 (Cystinuria)
    • 222690 (Hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I)
    • 222700 (Lysinuric protein intolerance)
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB000474
    KNApSAcK IDC00001378
    Chemspider ID5747
    KEGG Compound IDC00047
    BioCyc IDLYS
    BiGG ID33655
    Wikipedia LinkL-Lysine
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00182
    Metagene LinkHMDB00182
    METLIN ID5200
    PubChem Compound5962
    PDB ID1BBU
    ChEBI ID18019
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceRothstein, Morton. DL-Lysine-6-C14 and DL-a-aminoadipic acid-6-C14. Biochemical Preparations (1961), 8 85-8.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
    2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
    3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
    4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
    5. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
    6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
    7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
    8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
    9. Kranz BR: Detection of rare malignant cells and their apoptotic fragments in cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet. 2000 Oct 7;356(9237):1242-4. Pubmed: 11072949
    10. Hajishengallis G, Koga T, Russell MW: Affinity and specificity of the interactions between Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II and salivary components. J Dent Res. 1994 Sep;73(9):1493-502. Pubmed: 7523469
    11. Pahler A, Parker J, Dekant W: Dose-dependent protein adduct formation in kidney, liver, and blood of rats and in human blood after perchloroethene inhalation. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Mar;48(1):5-13. Pubmed: 10330678
    12. Faraasen S, Voros J, Csucs G, Textor M, Merkle HP, Walter E: Ligand-specific targeting of microspheres to phagocytes by surface modification with poly(L-lysine)-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):237-46. Pubmed: 12636162

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-79' of histone H3. Nucleosomes are preferred as substrate compared to free histones. Binds to DNA.
    Gene Name:
    DOT1L
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TEK3
    Molecular weight:
    164854.41
    General function:
    Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase that specifically monomethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Plays a central role in the transcriptional activation of genes such as collagenase or insulin. Recruited by IPF1/PDX-1 to the insulin promoter, leading to activate transcription. Has also methyltransferase activity toward non-histone proteins such as p53/TP53, TAF10, and possibly TAF7 by recognizing and binding the [KR]-[STA]-K in substrate proteins. Monomethylates 'Lys-189' of TAF10, leading to increase the affinity of TAF10 for RNA polymerase II. Monomethylates 'Lys-372' of p53/TP53, stabilizing p53/TP53 and increasing p53/TP53-mediated transcriptional activation.
    Gene Name:
    SETD7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8WTS6
    Molecular weight:
    40720.595
    General function:
    Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase. Preferentially methylates 'Lys-36' of histone H3 and 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (in vitro). Transcriptional intermediary factor capable of both negatively or positively influencing transcription, depending on the cellular context.
    Gene Name:
    NSD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96L73
    Molecular weight:
    296649.335
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in euchromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the silencing of euchromatic genes. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is coordinated with DNA methylation. Probably forms a complex with MBD1 and ATF7IP that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone 'Lys-9' trimethylation. Its activity is dependent on MBD1 and is heritably maintained through DNA replication by being recruited by CAF-1. SETDB1 is targeted to histone H3 by TRIM28/TIF1B, a factor recruited by KRAB zinc-finger proteins.
    Gene Name:
    SETDB1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q15047
    Molecular weight:
    143155.6
    General function:
    Involved in zinc ion binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase that specifically mono- and dimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2, respectively) in euchromatin. H3K9me represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 proteins to methylated histones. Also mediates monomethylation of 'Lys-56' of histone H3 (H3K56me1) in G1 phase, leading to promote interaction between histone H3 and PCNA and regulating DNA replication. Also weakly methylates 'Lys-27' of histone H3 (H3K27me). Also required for DNA methylation, the histone methyltransferase activity is not required for DNA methylation, suggesting that these 2 activities function independently. Probably targeted to histone H3 by different DNA-binding proteins like E2F6, MGA, MAX and/or DP1. May also methylate histone H1. In addition to the histone methyltransferase activity, also methylates non-histone proteins: mediates dimethylation of 'Lys-373' of p53/TP53. Also methylates CDYL, WIZ, ACIN1, DNMT1, HDAC1, ERCC6, KLF12 and itself.
    Gene Name:
    EHMT2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96KQ7
    Molecular weight:
    132369.205
    General function:
    Involved in zinc ion binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase that specifically mono- and dimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2, respectively) in euchromatin. H3K9me represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 proteins to methylated histones. Also weakly methylates 'Lys-27' of histone H3 (H3K27me). Also required for DNA methylation, the histone methyltransferase activity is not required for DNA methylation, suggesting that these 2 activities function independently. Probably targeted to histone H3 by different DNA-binding proteins like E2F6, MGA, MAX and/or DP1. During G0 phase, it probably contributes to silencing of MYC- and E2F-responsive genes, suggesting a role in G0/G1 transition in cell cycle. In addition to the histone methyltransferase activity, also methylates non-histone proteins: mediates dimethylation of 'Lys-373' of p53/TP53.
    Gene Name:
    EHMT1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9H9B1
    Molecular weight:
    86702.845
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
    Gene Name:
    PLOD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q02809
    Molecular weight:
    83549.55
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
    Gene Name:
    PLOD2
    Uniprot ID:
    O00469
    Molecular weight:
    84685.07
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
    Gene Name:
    PLOD3
    Uniprot ID:
    O60568
    Molecular weight:
    84784.505
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
    Specific function:
    Catalytic release of biotin from biocytin, the product of biotin-dependent carboxylases degradation.
    Gene Name:
    BTD
    Uniprot ID:
    P43251
    Molecular weight:
    61132.43
    Reactions
    Biocytin + Water → Biotin + L-Lysinedetails
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. Catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine oligophosphate (Ap4A), a signaling molecule involved in the activation of MITF transcriptional activity. Interacts with HIV-1 virus GAG protein, facilitating the selective packaging of tRNA(3)(Lys), the primer for reverse transcription initiation.
    Gene Name:
    KARS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q15046
    Molecular weight:
    71496.45
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Lysine + tRNA(Lys) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-lysyl-tRNA(Lys)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Lysine + tRNA(Lys) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Lysyl-tRNAdetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively.
    Gene Name:
    AASS
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UDR5
    Molecular weight:
    102130.895
    Reactions
    N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NADP + Water → L-Lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPHdetails
    Saccharopine + NADP + Water → L-Lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3. May function as a DNA-binding transcription factor. Binds to the macrophage-specific TPA-responsive element (MTE) of the HMOX1 (heme oxygenase 1) gene and may act as a transcriptional activator of this gene.
    Gene Name:
    PRDM2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q13029
    Molecular weight:
    162105.34
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase that plays an essential role in early development and hematopoiesis. Catalytic subunit of the MLL1/MLL complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates both methylation of 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me) complex and acetylation of 'Lys-16' of histone H4 (H4K16ac). In the MLL1/MLL complex, it specifically mediates H3K4me, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Has weak methyltransferase activity by itself, and requires other component of the MLL1/MLL complex to obtain full methyltransferase activity. Has no activity toward histone H3 phosphorylated on 'Thr-3', less activity toward H3 dimethylated on 'Arg-8' or 'Lys-9', while it has higher activity toward H3 acetylated on 'Lys-9'. Required for transcriptional activation of HOXA9. Promotes PPP1R15A-induced apoptosis.
    Gene Name:
    MLL
    Uniprot ID:
    Q03164
    Molecular weight:
    432047.735
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Central component of the MLL2/3 complex, a coactivator complex of nuclear receptors, involved in transcriptional coactivation. MLL3 may be a catalytic subunit of this complex. May be involved in leukemogenesis and developmental disorder.
    Gene Name:
    MLL3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8NEZ4
    Molecular weight:
    541365.64
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    AASS
    Uniprot ID:
    A4D0W4
    Molecular weight:
    102130.9
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the synthesis of carnosine and homocarnosine. Carnosine is synthesized more efficiently than homocarnosine.
    Gene Name:
    CARNS1
    Uniprot ID:
    A5YM72
    Molecular weight:
    101318.725
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Lysine + Beta-Alanine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + beta-Alanyl-L-lysinedetails
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Polycomb group (PcG) protein. Catalytic subunit of the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' (H3K9me) and 'Lys-27' (H3K27me) of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. Able to mono-, di- and trimethylate 'Lys-27' of histone H3 to form H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3, respectively. Compared to EZH2-containing complexes, it is more abundant in embryonic stem cells and plays a major role in forming H3K27me3, which is required for embryonic stem cell identity and proper differentiation. The PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex may also serve as a recruiting platform for DNA methyltransferases, thereby linking two epigenetic repression systems. Genes repressed by the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex include HOXC8, HOXA9, MYT1, CDKN2A and retinoic acid target genes. EZH2 can also methylate non-histone proteins such as the transcription factor GATA4.
    Gene Name:
    EZH2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q15910
    Molecular weight:
    85362.435
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me). H3K4me represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Acts as a coactivator for estrogen receptor by being recruited by ESR1, thereby activating transcription.
    Gene Name:
    MLL2
    Uniprot ID:
    O14686
    Molecular weight:
    593384.62
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase. Methylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Plays a central role in beta-globin locus transcription regulation by being recruited by NFE2. Plays an important role in controlling bulk H3K4me during oocyte growth and preimplantation development. Required during the transcriptionally active period of oocyte growth for the establishment and/or maintenance of bulk H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), global transcriptional silencing that preceeds resumption of meiosis, oocyte survival and normal zygotic genome activation.
    Gene Name:
    WBP7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UMN6
    Molecular weight:
    293512.14
    General function:
    Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase with histone H3 'Lys-27' (H3K27me) methyltransferase activity. Isoform RE-IIBP may act as a transcription regulator that binds DNA and suppresses IL5 transcription through HDAC recruitment.
    Gene Name:
    WHSC1
    Uniprot ID:
    O96028
    Molecular weight:
    152257.02
    General function:
    Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase. Preferentially methylates 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-27' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation, while 'Lys-27' is a mark for transcriptional repression.
    Gene Name:
    WHSC1L1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BZ95
    Molecular weight:
    72620.72
    General function:
    Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Histone methyltransferase that methylates 'Lys-36' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-36' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Probably plays a role in chromatin structure modulation during elongation via its interaction with hyperphosphorylated POLR2A. Binds DNA at promoters. May also act as a transcription activator that binds to promoters. Binds to the promoters of adenovirus 12 E1A gene in case of infection, possibly leading to regulate its expression.
    Gene Name:
    SETD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BYW2
    Molecular weight:
    287594.195
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-36' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Preferentially demethylates dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' residue while it has weak or no activity for mono- and tri-methylated H3 'Lys-36'. May also recognize and bind to some phosphorylated proteins and promote their ubiquitination and degradation. Required to maintain the heterochromatic state. Associates with centromeres and represses transcription of small non-coding RNAs that are encoded by the clusters of satellite repeats at the centromere. Required to sustain centromeric integrity and genomic stability, particularly during mitosis.
    Gene Name:
    KDM2A
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y2K7
    Molecular weight:
    81677.13
    General function:
    Involved in DNA binding
    Specific function:
    Histone demethylase that demethylates 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-36' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Preferentially demethylates trimethylated H3 'Lys-4' and dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' residue while it has weak or no activity for mono- and tri-methylated H3 'Lys-36'. Preferentially binds the transcribed region of ribosomal RNA and represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes which inhibits cell growth and proliferation. May also serve as a substrate-recognition component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.
    Gene Name:
    KDM2B
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8NHM5
    Molecular weight:
    144767.43