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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-06-10 21:22:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00197
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIndoleacetic acid
DescriptionIndoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. Some endogenous production of IAA in mammalian tissues also occurs. It may be produced by the decarboxylation of tryptamine or the oxidative deamination of tryptophan. IAA frequently occurs at low levels in urine and has been found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria ((PMID: 13610897 ). Using material extracted from human urine, it was discovered by Kogl in 1933 that Indoleacetic acid is also an important plant hormone (PMID: 13610897 ). Specifically IAA is a member of the group of phytohormones called auxins. IAA is generally considered to be the most important native auxin. Plant cells synthesize IAA from tryptophan. (wikipedia) IAA and some derivatives can be oxidised by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cytotoxic species. IAA is only toxic after oxidative decarboxylation; the effect of IAA/HRP is thought to be due in part to the formation of methylene-oxindole, which may conjugate with DNA bases and protein thiols. IAA/HRP could be used as the basis for targeted cancer, a potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy. (PMID: 11163327 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(indol-3-yl)AcetateChEBI
(indol-3-yl)Acetic acidChEBI
2-(indol-3-yl)Ethanoic acidChEBI
3-IndolylessigsaeureChEBI
HeteroauxinChEBI
IAAChEBI
IESChEBI
Indoleacetic acidChEBI
2-(1H-indol-3-yl)AcetateGenerator
2-(indol-3-yl)EthanoateGenerator
IndoleacetateGenerator
(1H-indol-3-yl)-AcetateHMDB
(1H-indol-3-yl)-Acetic acidHMDB
1H-indol-3-YlacetateHMDB
1H-indol-3-Ylacetic acidHMDB
1H-Indole-3-acetateHMDB
1H-Indole-3-acetic acidHMDB
2-(3-Indolyl)acetateHMDB
2-(3-Indolyl)acetic acidHMDB
3-(Carboxymethyl)indoleHMDB
3-IAAHMDB
3-Indole-acetic acidHMDB
3-IndoleacetateHMDB
3-Indoleacetic acidHMDB
3-IndolylacetateHMDB
3-Indolylacetic acidHMDB
alpha-indol-3-yl-Acetic acidHMDB
b-IndoleacetateHMDB
b-Indoleacetic acidHMDB
b-IndolylacetateHMDB
b-Indolylacetic acidHMDB
beta-Indole-3-acetic acidHMDB
beta-IndoleacetateHMDB
beta-Indoleacetic acidHMDB
beta-IndolylacetateHMDB
beta-Indolylacetic acidHMDB
indol-3-YlacetateHMDB
indol-3-Ylacetic acidHMDB
Indole-3-acetateHMDB
Indole-3-acetic acidHMDB
Indolyl-3-acetateHMDB
Indolyl-3-acetic acidHMDB
IndolylacetateHMDB
Indolylacetic acidHMDB
Kyselina 3-indolyloctovaHMDB
RhizopinHMDB
Rhizopon aHMDB
Skatole carboxylateHMDB
Skatole carboxylic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H9NO2
Average Molecular Weight175.184
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight175.063328537
IUPAC Name2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid
Traditional Nameβ-indole-3-acetic acid
CAS Registry Number87-51-4
SMILES
OC(=O)CC1=CNC2=C1C=CC=C2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H9NO2/c12-10(13)5-7-6-11-9-4-2-1-3-8(7)9/h1-4,6,11H,5H2,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=SEOVTRFCIGRIMH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indole-3-acetic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing an acetic acid (or a derivative) linked to the C3 carbon atom of an indole.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndole-3-acetic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Indole-3-acetic acid derivative
  • Indole
  • Benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Microbial
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point168.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.41HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.38 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.87ALOGPS
logP1.71ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.09 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity48.45 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0391000000-7581f14fe5be5b2b2954View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0691000000-de9ac4f748d50db109eaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0591000000-9687f83d1372abe23c3cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1793100000-7c78003038436ec5a902View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-00ai-7910000000-4aa7b8244f32048c76bcView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0fk9-9250000000-a5f931fc3292056dba65View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-001i-1920000000-f0ecee61454a589493afView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1692000000-ce863a1ca2a657cb41d5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-f6dbb01a35af3042d126View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-2ae231b7d0e2cd50aed8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-6900000000-9eae14faa16b8f8259daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-003r-0900000000-1edcb4977a52155bc130View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00e9-0900000000-187b48f2258823cbc6a2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-30b7a73fa446d0e3c8d3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-bbe0fb5a48f89ea6e383View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-97850f400d80de278334View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-600545759ef108827b9eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0kxr-5900000000-ba2eed29832f9ee48921View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-004l-5900000000-a0b30710f83e53b6f3dbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9500000000-146ac0a20f9d53e76291View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-053r-9600000000-d9258b3c6b5c6f748f6eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9300000000-b59628beb41b424daf4aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (UPLC Waters, Quattro Ultima Pt Micromass) , Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-755373c9248cfb6425fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-2b3df7a1dd85faea6705View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-003r-0900000000-9522ab089ab89b64f96aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-b735e95cb23091491c2eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-2a3dd24f136523e6ce1eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-053r-0900000000-77436493836245345cb8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00lr-1900000000-4e0b6f24d03c0b25800fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00e9-0900000000-1d045a56f3669a1c9391View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05ai-0900000000-518778c36bacbf77b901View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a5c-3900000000-323fc64084836756be30View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-2a3dd24f136523e6ce1eView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-1900000000-3ffc47eb6c977956ad93View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Central Nervous System
  • Fibroblasts
  • Hippocampus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Platelet
  • Spinal Cord
  • Striatum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063map00380
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.85 +/- 1.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.05 (0.0-0.118) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.05 (0.0- 0.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.03 (0.005 - 0.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0359 +/- 0.0150 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0280 +/- 0.0127 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.339 +/- 0.0743 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0251 +/- 0.00211 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.859 +/- 2.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.08 +/- 1.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.151 +/- 0.478 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.14 +/- 3.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.213 +/- 8.547 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified41.027 +/- 21.106 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.75 +/- 16.978 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.4 (1.8-6.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.0 +/- 1.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.5-2.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.2 (0.1-31.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.6 (0.1-5.7) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.4 (1.3-12.3) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.8 (0.1-5.5) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.8 (1.1-8.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.5-2.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.6 (5.5 - 5.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6(0.6-5.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13.70 +/- 12.56 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0251 +/- 0.00240 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specifiedanorexia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0315 +/- 0.00748 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Bothautism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0299 +/- 0.00280 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specifieddepressive details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0247 +/- 0.00360 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedMania details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0337 +/- 0.00457 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRetarded depression details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.571 +/- 0.992 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDental caries
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.58 +/- 10.413 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified45.731 +/- 33.914 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified64.967 +/- 50.993 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified42.755 +/- 34.674 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.666 +/- 20.269 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 (2.5-6.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.5 +/- 0.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Appendicitis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.1 +/- 0.14 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Appendicitis
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Appendicitis
  1. Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2001 May-Jun;48(39):609-13. [11462886 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Bearcroft CP, Perrett D, Farthing MJ: Postprandial plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine in diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Gut. 1998 Jan;42(1):42-6. [9505884 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00497
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000933
KNApSAcK IDC00000100
Chemspider ID780
KEGG Compound IDC00954
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID1485312
Wikipedia LinkIndoleacetic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00197
Metagene LinkHMDB00197
METLIN ID5211
PubChem Compound802
PDB IDIAC
ChEBI ID16411
References
Synthesis Reference Snyder, H. R.; Pilgrim, Frederick J. Preparation of 3-indoleacetic acid; new synthesis of tryptophol. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1948), 70 3770-1.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [8087979 ]
  2. Igari T, Tsuchizawa M, Shimamura T: Alteration of tryptophan metabolism in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1987 Oct;153(2):79-86. [3500530 ]
  3. Carpenter LL, Anderson GM, Siniscalchi JM, Chappell PB, Price LH: Acute changes in cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA following oral paroxetine challenge in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):339-47. [12589387 ]
  4. Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB: Role of serotonin in the pathophysiology of depression: focus on the serotonin transporter. Clin Chem. 1994 Feb;40(2):288-95. [7508830 ]
  5. Tu JB, Wong CY: Serotonin metabolism in normal and abnormal infants during the perinatal period. Biol Neonate. 1976;29(3-4):187-93. [133735 ]
  6. Blennow K, Wallin A, Gottfries CG, Mansson JE, Svennerholm L: Concentration gradients for monoamine metabolites in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1993;5(1):5-15. [7679905 ]
  7. Morgan WW, Grant RW: Increased rate of disappearance of serum probenecid in barbital dependent rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1976 Dec;40(2):349-57. [1033074 ]
  8. Jellinger K, Riederer P: Brain monoamines in metabolic (endotoxic) coma. A preliminary biochemical study in human postmortem material. J Neural Transm. 1977;41(4):275-86. [925688 ]
  9. Sarrias MJ, Cabre P, Martinez E, Artigas F: Relationship between serotoninergic measures in blood and cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously obtained in humans. J Neurochem. 1990 Mar;54(3):783-6. [1689378 ]
  10. Kema IP, Meijer WG, Meiborg G, Ooms B, Willemse PH, de Vries EG: Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Clin Chem. 2001 Oct;47(10):1811-20. [11568091 ]
  11. Bai F, Jones DC, Lau SS, Monks TJ: Serotonergic neurotoxicity of 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-(+/-)-methylendioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) is potentiated by inhibition of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Jul;14(7):863-70. [11453733 ]
  12. Ridges AP, Bishop FM, Lawton K, Goldberg IJ: Amine metabolism, thyroid function and response to clomipramine and maprotiline medication in depression. Postgrad Med J. 1980;56 Suppl 1:37-41. [6156444 ]
  13. Raghuram TC, Krishnaswamy K: Serotonin metabolism is pellagra. Arch Neurol. 1975 Oct;32(10):708-10. [1180737 ]
  14. Carling RS, Degg TJ, Allen KR, Bax ND, Barth JH: Evaluation of whole blood serotonin and plasma and urine 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in diagnosis of carcinoid disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2002 Nov;39(Pt 6):577-82. [12564839 ]
  15. Taniguchi K, Okatani Y, Sagara Y: Serotonin metabolism in the fetus in preeclampsia. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994 Mar;20(1):77-86. [7513511 ]
  16. Russo S, Boon JC, Kema IP, Willemse PH, den Boer JA, Korf J, de Vries EG: Patients with carcinoid syndrome exhibit symptoms of aggressive impulse dysregulation. Psychosom Med. 2004 May-Jun;66(3):422-5. [15184706 ]
  17. Igari T, Shimamura T: Serotonin metabolism and its enzymic activities in joint diseases. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1979 Mar-Apr;(139):232-49. [455840 ]
  18. Bearcroft CP, Perrett D, Farthing MJ: Postprandial plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine in diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Gut. 1998 Jan;42(1):42-6. [9505884 ]
  19. Ilkhanizadeh B, Owji AA, Tavangar SM, Vasei M, Tabei SM: Spot urine 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and acute appendicitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2001 May-Jun;48(39):609-13. [11462886 ]
  20. Apak S, Kazez A, Ozel SK, Ustundag B, Akpolat N, Kizirgil A: Spot urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Sep;40(9):1436-9. [16150345 ]
  21. WEISSBACH H, KING W, SJOERDSMA A, UDENFRIEND S: Formation of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptamine in animals: a method for estimation of indole-3-acetic acid in tissues. J Biol Chem. 1959 Jan;234(1):81-6. [13610897 ]
  22. Folkes LK, Wardman P: Oxidative activation of indole-3-acetic acids to cytotoxic species- a potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Jan 15;61(2):129-36. [11163327 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails