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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2015-12-02 05:10:03 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name17-Hydroxyprogesterone
DescriptionIt serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydrocortisone and gonadal steroid hormones. It is derived from progesterone via 17-hydroxylase, a P450c17 enzyme, or from 17-hydroxypregnenolone via 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone is a natural progestin and in pregnancy increases in the third trimester primarily due to fetal adrenal production. This hormone is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and to some degree in the gonads, specifically the corpus luteum of the ovary. Normal levels are 3-90 ng/dl in children, and in women, 15-70 ng/dl prior to ovulation, and 35-290 ng/dl during the luteal phase. Measurements of levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone are useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia as the typical enzymes that are defective, namely 21-hydroxylase and 11β-hydroxylase, lead to a build-up of 17OHP. In contrast, the rare patient with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency will have very low or undetectable levels of 17OHP. 17OHP levels can also be used to measure contribution of progestational activity of the corpus luteum during pregnancy as progesterone but not 17OHP is also contributed by the placenta.
  1. 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone
  2. 17-Hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione
  3. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  4. 17-OH Progesterone
  5. 17-OHP
  6. 17a-Hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione
  7. 17a-Hydroxyprogesterone
  8. 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone
  9. D4-Pregnen-17a-ol-3,20-dione
  10. Gestageno
  11. Gestageno Gador
  12. Hydroxyprogesterone
  13. Pregn-4-en-17a-ol-3,20-dione
  14. Prodix
  15. Prodox
Chemical FormulaC21H30O3
Average Molecular Weight330.4611
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight330.219494826
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10R,11S,14R,15S)-14-acetyl-14-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional Namehydroxyprogesterone
CAS Registry Number68-96-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure based on a hydroxylated prostane moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassPregnane steroids
Direct ParentGluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point219 - 220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.00648 mg/mLNot Available
LogP3.17HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.029 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity94.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-fz64300000-d40ba45835d1ee1b6c41View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-101z000000-a157e4b4aa18bdbc2531View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-lz30000000-42494c0ef4b45cfa5cf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zr00000000-d8a942a3dfdb061bd5c3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-zql5000000-b0c55e50343bf8ab3077View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-zue4000000-48d2266d41955ffa9ce4View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Testes
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)SMP00575Not Available
17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)SMP00566Not Available
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencySMP00356Not Available
21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)SMP00576Not Available
3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00718Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00373Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00372Not Available
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismSMP00068map00150
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndromeSMP00717Not Available
Aromatase deficiencySMP00565Not Available
Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAHSMP00371Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)SMP00577Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO IISMP00578Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.011 (0.0003-0.023) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified<1.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0013 +/- 0.00026 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.152 (0.0022- 0.302) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0014 (0.000030-0.0028) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both21-hydroxylase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.016 (0.0090-0.024) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (CYP21) details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0017 +/- 0.00034 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00065 +/- 0.00011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00077 +/- 0.0002 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0022 +/- 0.00058 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
21-hydroxylase deficiency
  1. MetaGene [Link]
  1. Elvers LH, Loeber JG, Dhondt JL, Fukushi M, Hannon WH, Torresani T, Webster D: First ISNS Reference Preparation for Neonatal Screening for thyrotropin, phenylalanine and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in blood spots. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Aug;30(4):609. Epub 2007 Jun 14. [17574536 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. [15249323 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021992
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6002
KEGG Compound IDC01176
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID36989
Wikipedia Link17-Hydroxyprogesterone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00374
Metagene LinkHMDB00374
PubChem Compound6238
ChEBI ID17252
Synthesis ReferenceSchneider, Carlos; Silva, Mario; Zunza, Hilda; Becerra, Jose. Synthesis of 17.alpha.-hydroxyprogesterone from androstenedione. Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica (1999), 44(2), 167-172.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. White PC, Tusie-Luna MT, New MI, Speiser PW: Mutations in steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21). Hum Mutat. 1994;3(4):373-8. [8081391 ]
  2. Mellon SH, Miller WL: Extraadrenal steroid 21-hydroxylation is not mediated by P450c21. J Clin Invest. 1989 Nov;84(5):1497-502. [2808702 ]
  3. Shackleton C, Malunowicz E: Apparent pregnene hydroxylation deficiency (APHD): seeking the parentage of an orphan metabolome. Steroids. 2003 Oct;68(9):707-17. [14625002 ]
  4. Gibney MJ, Walsh M, Brennan L, Roche HM, German B, van Ommen B: Metabolomics in human nutrition: opportunities and challenges. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):497-503. [16155259 ]
  5. Sahin Y, Kelestimur F: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone responses to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist buserelin and adrenocorticotrophin in polycystic ovary syndrome: investigation of adrenal and ovarian cytochrome P450c17alpha dysregulation. Hum Reprod. 1997 May;12(5):910-3. [9194638 ]
  6. Kirchengast S, Hartmann B, Huber J: Serum levels of sex hormones, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, IGF I, and cortisol and their relations to body fat distribution in healthy women dependent on their menopausal status. Z Morphol Anthropol. 1996 Sep;81(2):223-34. [9270338 ]
  7. Hampl R, Lachman M, Novak Z, Sulcova J, Starka L: Serum levels of steroid hormones in men with varicocele and oligospermia as compared to normozoospermic men. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1992;100(3):117-9. [1305061 ]
  8. Ibanez L, de Zegher F, Potau N: Anovulation after precocious pubarche: early markers and time course in adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Aug;84(8):2691-5. [10443661 ]
  9. Katagiri M, Kagawa N, Waterman MR: The role of cytochrome b5 in the biosynthesis of androgens by human P450c17. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Mar 10;317(2):343-7. [7893148 ]
  10. al Saedi S, Dean H, Dent W, Cronin C: Reference ranges for serum cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels in preterm infants. J Pediatr. 1995 Jun;126(6):985-7. [7776113 ]
  11. Gupta MK, Guryev OL, Auchus RJ: 5alpha-reduced C21 steroids are substrates for human cytochrome P450c17. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):151-60. [14522586 ]
  12. Escobar-Morreale HF, San Millan JL, Smith RR, Sancho J, Witchel SF: The presence of the 21-hydroxylase deficiency carrier status in hirsute women: phenotype-genotype correlations. Fertil Steril. 1999 Oct;72(4):629-38. [10521100 ]
  13. Wilson SC, Hodgins MB, Scott JS: Incomplete masculinization due to a deficiency of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: comparison of prepubertal and peripubertal siblings. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1987 Apr;26(4):459-69. [2820622 ]
  14. Toscano V, Sancesario G, Bianchi P, Cicardi C, Casilli D, Giacomini P: Cerebrospinal fluid estrone in pseudotumor cerebri: a change in cerebral steroid hormone metabolism? J Endocrinol Invest. 1991 Feb;14(2):81-6. [2061573 ]
  15. Bolt RJ, Van Weissenbruch MM, Popp-Snijders C, Sweep FG, Lafeber HN, Delemarre-van de Waal HA: Maturity of the adrenal cortex in very preterm infants is related to gestational age. Pediatr Res. 2002 Sep;52(3):405-10. [12193676 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the intrahepatic bile acid concentration. Has a low bile-binding ability. May play a role in myelin formation.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
17-alpha,20-alpha-Dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one + NAD(P)(+) → 17-Hydroxyprogesterone + NAD(P)Hdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen → 21-Deoxycortisol + Oxidized ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Progesterone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → 17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Acceptor + Waterdetails
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → Androstenedione + Acetic acid + Acceptor + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids. Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA to 4-androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone to 5-alpha-androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione and 5-alpha-androstan-3 beta,17 beta-diol to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + NAD → 17-Hydroxyprogesterone + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
3-beta-HSD is a bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of Delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. The 3-beta-HSD enzymatic system plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + NAD → 17-Hydroxyprogesterone + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Preferentially catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone via corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen → 21-Deoxycortisol + Oxidized ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Specifically catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids. Required for the adrenal synthesis of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → Cortexolone + Acceptor + Waterdetails