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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:43:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00718
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIsovaleric acid
DescriptionIsovaleric acid, is a natural fatty acid found in a wide variety of plants and essential oils. Isovaleric acid is clear colorless liquid that is sparingly soluble in water, but well soluble in most common organic solvents. It has been suggested that isovaleric acid from pilot whales, a species frequently consumed in the Faroe Islands, may be the unusual dietary factor in prolonged gestation in the population of the Faroe Islands. Previous studies suggested that was due to the high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been, but fatty acid data for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in blood lipids of Faroese and Norwegians was reviewed in terms of the type of fish eaten (mostly lean white fish with DHA much greater than EPA); the popular lean fish, thus, probably provides too little EPA to produce a marked effect on human biochemistry. (PMID 2646392 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Methyl-N-butyric acidChEBI
3-MethylbuttersaeureChEBI
3-Methylbutyric acidChEBI
beta-Methylbutyric acidChEBI
Delphinic acidChEBI
Isobutylformic acidChEBI
Isopentanoic acidChEBI
Isopropylacetic acidChEBI
IsovalerateChEBI
Isovalerianic acidChEBI
IsovaleriansaeureChEBI
3-Methyl-N-butyrateGenerator
3-MethylbutanoateGenerator
3-MethylbutyrateGenerator
b-MethylbutyrateGenerator
b-Methylbutyric acidGenerator
beta-MethylbutyrateGenerator
β-methylbutyrateGenerator
β-methylbutyric acidGenerator
DelphinateGenerator
IsobutylformateGenerator
IsopentanoateGenerator
IsopropylacetateGenerator
Isovaleric acidGenerator
IsovalerianateGenerator
3-Methyl butyric acidHMDB
3-Methylbutyric acid: isopropyl-acetateHMDB
3-Methylbutyric acid: isopropyl-acetic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H10O2
Average Molecular Weight102.1317
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight102.068079564
IUPAC Name3-methylbutanoic acid
Traditional Nameisovaleric acid
CAS Registry Number503-74-2
SMILES
CC(C)CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10O2/c1-4(2)3-5(6)7/h4H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyInChIKey=GWYFCOCPABKNJV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMethyl-branched fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-29.3 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility40.7 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.16HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility64.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.26ALOGPS
logP1.21ChemAxon
logS-0.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity26.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0gvo-9300000000-16b5d15d26810b72bb36View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-692791435c37fa74a692View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-b4c1b59653cd4d803637View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-b0f7e399edb7f95572edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-c8be68873f336c8de6d6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-d0f20bc9813dcba79e8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-63b09019c280c88ee64dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-ef9ee29c1febd59e6a00View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9200000000-e825f0aa9ab54c1695d3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-9ba126f982634fdc9406View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-afb863a56c8763c30251View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-8900000000-244535e4070d536a29b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pc0-9300000000-93ed2bc326380cb0d880View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-44b2fa11a5a6daab8dd0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03dl-9000000000-e7c77b2bc7f3ac5191e9View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.6 (0.3-2.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.35 (0-2.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified1622.807 +/- 672.465 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1280 +/- 920 nmol/g of fecesAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 28.65 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified54.03 +/- 39.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.415 +/- 0.858 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.8-2.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified41.0 +/- 25.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.42 ± 0.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 (0.0-0.13) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.5 (1.1-6.7) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 53.24 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.559 +/- 2.305 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB03750
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001324
KNApSAcK IDC00001189
Chemspider ID10001
KEGG Compound IDC08262
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkIsovaleric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00718
Metagene LinkHMDB00718
METLIN ID109
PubChem Compound10430
PDB IDIVA
ChEBI ID28484
References
Synthesis ReferenceImada, Yukio; Mizuno, Sumiko; Mikawa, Takashi. Manufacture of isovaleric acid and 2-methylbutyric acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1986), 3 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Silva MF, Selhorst J, Overmars H, van Gennip AH, Maya M, Wanders RJ, de Almeida IT, Duran M: Characterization of plasma acylcarnitines in patients under valproate monotherapy using ESI-MS/MS. Clin Biochem. 2001 Nov;34(8):635-8. [11849623 ]
  2. Hoffmann GF, von Kries R, Klose D, Lindner M, Schulze A, Muntau AC, Roschinger W, Liebl B, Mayatepek E, Roscher AA: Frequencies of inherited organic acidurias and disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid transport and oxidation in Germany. Eur J Pediatr. 2004 Feb;163(2):76-80. Epub 2004 Jan 9. [14714182 ]
  3. Arthur K, Hommes FA: Simple isotope dilution assay for propionic acid and isovaleric acid. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995 Nov 3;673(1):132-5. [8925066 ]
  4. Ara K, Hama M, Akiba S, Koike K, Okisaka K, Hagura T, Kamiya T, Tomita F: Foot odor due to microbial metabolism and its control. Can J Microbiol. 2006 Apr;52(4):357-64. [16699586 ]
  5. Ackman RG: Birthweights in the Faroe Islands: possible role of isovaleric acid. J Intern Med. 1989 Feb;225(2):73-5. [2646392 ]