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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:04 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAluminum
DescriptionAluminium is a soft, lightweight metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. Data indicate that aluminum contaminates much of the raw material used to manufacture solutions used for intravenous nutritional support of hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and that pharmaceutical manufacturers have only recently obtained the technology necessary to detect aluminum contamination of their products. As a result, aluminum bypassed normal barriers and entered the blood, accumulating in tissues such as bone, liver and the central nervous system with toxic consequences. Now that the FDA has finally issued a rule governing aluminum contamination in these solutions, manufacturers will need to develop methods to minimize such contamination; scientists should also realize that when data they obtain indicate a serious problem in the manufacturing sector they should be sure that the problem is properly addressed.Physiologically, this metal/element. exists as an ion in the body. (PMID: 16198633 ).
Aluminium ionChEBI
Chemical FormulaAl
Average Molecular Weight26.9815
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight26.981538441
IUPAC Namealuminium(3+) ion
Traditional Namealuminium(3+) ion
CAS Registry Number7429-90-5
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous post-transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a post-transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous post-transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous post-transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous post-transition metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Drug
  • Food
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point660 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.1 +/- 0.056 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.185 (0.019-0.482) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified109 +/- 26 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12.1+/-6.33 (7.4-25.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified228.08 +/- 71.18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0515 +/- 0.0315 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.474 +/- 0.252 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.236 +/- 0.265 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.231 +/- 0.311 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
UrineDetected and Quantified0.31 (0.05-1.21) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified<0.14650 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.667 +/- 0.037 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.024 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.89 +/- 0.79 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.11 +/- 0.00061 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0823 +/- 0.0460 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. [16244393 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. [16244395 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. [16244392 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01370
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003570
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID94544
KEGG Compound IDC06264
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAluminum
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01247
Metagene LinkHMDB01247
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound104727
ChEBI ID49470
Synthesis ReferenceKang, B. S.; Kim, W. B.; Park, Y. S.; Yoo, Y. H. Recovery of aluminum from anthracite ash. Konghak Nonjip (1989), 30 57-70.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Strunecka A, Strunecky O, Patocka J: Fluoride plus aluminum: useful tools in laboratory investigations, but messengers of false information. Physiol Res. 2002;51(6):557-64. [12511178 ]
  2. Elmore AR: Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite. Int J Toxicol. 2003;22 Suppl 1:37-102. [12851164 ]
  3. Savory J, Herman MM, Ghribi O: Intracellular mechanisms underlying aluminum-induced apoptosis in rabbit brain. J Inorg Biochem. 2003 Sep 15;97(1):151-4. [14507471 ]
  4. Arnold CJ, Miller GG, Zello GA: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in neonates: the role of aluminum. Nutr Rev. 2003 Sep;61(9):306-10. [14552065 ]
  5. Zatta P, Lucchini R, van Rensburg SJ, Taylor A: The role of metals in neurodegenerative processes: aluminum, manganese, and zinc. Brain Res Bull. 2003 Nov 15;62(1):15-28. [14596888 ]
  6. Gherardi RK, Authier FJ: Aluminum inclusion macrophagic myofasciitis: a recently identified condition. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2003 Nov;23(4):699-712. [14753387 ]
  7. Becaria A, Campbell A, Bondy SC: Aluminum as a toxicant. Toxicol Ind Health. 2002 Aug;18(7):309-20. [15068131 ]
  8. Klein GL: Aluminum: new recognition of an old problem. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;5(6):637-40. Epub 2005 Sep 28. [16198633 ]
  9. Kawahara M: Effects of aluminum on the nervous system and its possible link with neurodegenerative diseases. J Alzheimers Dis. 2005 Nov;8(2):171-82; discussion 209-15. [16308486 ]
  10. Aremu DA, Meshitsuka S: Some aspects of astroglial functions and aluminum implications for neurodegeneration. Brain Res Rev. 2006 Aug 30;52(1):193-200. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [16529821 ]
  11. Perl DP, Moalem S: Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease, a personal perspective after 25 years. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006;9(3 Suppl):291-300. [17004365 ]
  12. Savory J, Herman MM, Ghribi O: Mechanisms of aluminum-induced neurodegeneration in animals: Implications for Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Nov;10(2-3):135-44. [17119283 ]
  13. Campbell A: The role of aluminum and copper on neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Nov;10(2-3):165-72. [17119285 ]
  14. Miu AC, Benga O: Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease: a new look. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Nov;10(2-3):179-201. [17119287 ]
  15. Yokel RA: Blood-brain barrier flux of aluminum, manganese, iron and other metals suspected to contribute to metal-induced neurodegeneration. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Nov;10(2-3):223-53. [17119290 ]
  16. Domingo JL: Aluminum and other metals in Alzheimer's disease: a review of potential therapy with chelating agents. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Nov;10(2-3):331-41. [17119296 ]
  17. Riggs K, Keller M, Humphreys TR: Ablative laser resurfacing: high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet. Clin Dermatol. 2007 Sep-Oct;25(5):462-73. [17870524 ]
  18. Hem SL, Hogenesch H: Relationship between physical and chemical properties of aluminum-containing adjuvants and immunopotentiation. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Oct;6(5):685-98. [17931150 ]
  19. Nokleby H: Neurological adverse events of immunization: experience with an aluminum adjuvanted meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Oct;6(5):863-9. [17931164 ]


General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Menz RI, Walker JE, Leslie AG: Structure of bovine mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase with nucleotide bound to all three catalytic sites: implications for the mechanism of rotary catalysis. Cell. 2001 Aug 10;106(3):331-41. [11509182 ]
  2. Silva VS, Goncalves PP: The inhibitory effect of aluminium on the (Na+/K+)ATPase activity of rat brain cortex synaptosomes. J Inorg Biochem. 2003 Sep 15;97(1):143-50. [14507470 ]
  3. Amador FC, Santos MS, Oliveira CR: Lipid peroxidation and aluminium effects on the cholinergic system in nerve terminals. Neurotox Res. 2001 Jul;3(3):223-33. [15111247 ]
  4. Kohila T, Parkkonen E, Tahti H: Evaluation of the effects of aluminium, ethanol and their combination on rat brain synaptosomal integral proteins in vitro and after 90-day oral exposure. Arch Toxicol. 2004 May;78(5):276-82. [15254985 ]
  5. Kohila T, Tahti H: Effects of aluminium and lead on ATPase activity of knockout +/- mouse cerebral synaptosomes in vitro. Altern Lab Anim. 2004 Oct;32(4):361-7. [15651920 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in ferric iron binding
Specific function:
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from sites of absorption and heme degradation to those of storage and utilization. Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation
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  1. Nolte E, Beck E, Winklhofer C, Steinhausen C: Compartmental model for aluminium biokinetics. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Feb;20(2):111-7. [11327511 ]
  2. Nagaoka MH, Maitani T: Binding affinity of aluminium to human serum transferrin and effects of carbohydrate chain modification as studied by HPLC/high-resolution ICP-MS--speciation of aluminium in human serum. J Inorg Biochem. 2005 Sep;99(9):1887-94. [16139893 ]
  3. Mizutani K, Mikami B, Aibara S, Hirose M: Structure of aluminium-bound ovotransferrin at 2.15 Angstroms resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Dec;61(Pt 12):1636-42. Epub 2005 Nov 19. [16301797 ]
  4. Beardmore J, Rugg G, Exley C: A systems biology approach to the blood-aluminium problem: the application and testing of a computational model. J Inorg Biochem. 2007 Sep;101(9):1187-91. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [17629565 ]