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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-06-10 16:21:35 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01272
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNicotine glucuronide
DescriptionNicotine glucuronidation results in an N-quaternary glucuronide in humans. This reaction is catalyzed by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme(s) producing (S)-nicotine-N-beta-glucuronide (Nicotine-Gluc). About 3-5% of nicotine is converted to Nicotine-Gluc and excreted in urine in humans.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (S)-1-alpha-D-glucopyranuronosyl-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-Pyridinium inner salt
  2. (S)-1-alpha-D-glucopyranuronosyl-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridinium inner salt
  3. (S)-1-alpha-delta-glucopyranuronosyl-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-Pyridinium inner salt
  4. (S)-1-alpha-delta-glucopyranuronosyl-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridinium inner salt
  5. 1-alpha-D-Glucopyranuronosyl-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-(S)-Pyridinium
  6. 1-alpha-D-Glucopyranuronosyl-3-[(2S)-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]-Pyridinium
  7. 1-alpha-delta-Glucopyranuronosyl-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-(S)-Pyridinium
  8. 1-alpha-delta-Glucopyranuronosyl-3-[(2S)-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]-Pyridinium
  9. Nicotine glucuronide
  10. Nicotine N-glucuronide
  11. Nicotine-Glucuronide
Chemical FormulaC16H22N2O6
Average Molecular Weight338.3557
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight338.147786446
IUPAC Name1-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6S)-6-carboxylato-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]-3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1$l^{5}-pyridin-1-ylium
Traditional IUPAC Name1-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6S)-6-carboxylato-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]-3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1$l^{5}-pyridin-1-ylium
CAS Registry Number152306-59-7
SMILES
CN1CCC[C@H]1C1=C[N+](=CC=C1)[C@H]1O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)C([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H22N2O6/c1-17-6-3-5-10(17)9-4-2-7-18(8-9)15-13(21)11(19)12(20)14(24-15)16(22)23/h2,4,7-8,10-15,19-21H,3,5-6H2,1H3/t10-,11-,12-,13+,14-,15-/m0/s1
InChI KeySAWAIULJDYFLPD-SOAFEQHCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassSugar Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassSugar Amino Acids and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Beta Hydroxy Acid
  • Carboxylic Acid Salt
  • Glucuronic Acid Or Derivative
  • Glucuronide
  • Glyco Amino Acid
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Hexose Monosaccharide
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Nicotine
  • Oxane
  • Pyridine
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Pyrrolidinylpyridine
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Tertiary Aliphatic Amine (Trialkylamine)
Direct ParentPyranoid Amino Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility8.02 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-7.3ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)2.52ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)7.42ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count7ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area117.17ChemAxon
rotatable bond count3ChemAxon
refractivity94.18ChemAxon
polarizability33.42ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00524
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022526
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2299987
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-2744
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01272
Metagene LinkHMDB01272
METLIN ID6127
PubChem Compound3035848
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID63860
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Heavner DL, Richardson JD, Morgan WT, Ogden MW: Validation and application of a method for the determination of nicotine and five major metabolites in smokers' urine by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr. 2005 May;19(4):312-28. Pubmed: 15651085
  2. Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Zhang Y, Lemmonds C, Murphy S, Hatsukami DK: Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 May;14(5):1283-6. Pubmed: 15894687
  3. Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Chen M, Dor Koch JF, Miller AT, Murphy SE, Jensen JA, Zimmerman CL, Hatsukami DK: Quantitation of urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen after smoking cessation. Cancer Res. 1999 Feb 1;59(3):590-6. Pubmed: 9973205

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular weight:
38742.9
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
References
  1. Kuehl GE, Murphy SE: N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Nov;31(11):1361-8. Pubmed: 14570768
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B10
Uniprot ID:
P36537
Molecular weight:
60773.485
References
  1. Kaivosaari S, Toivonen P, Hesse LM, Koskinen M, Court MH, Finel M: Nicotine glucuronidation and the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B10. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;72(3):761-8. Epub 2007 Jun 18. Pubmed: 17576790
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
References
  1. Kaivosaari S, Toivonen P, Hesse LM, Koskinen M, Court MH, Finel M: Nicotine glucuronidation and the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B10. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;72(3):761-8. Epub 2007 Jun 18. Pubmed: 17576790
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular weight:
61035.815
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Gene Name:
UGT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4X1
Molecular weight:
60771.605
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
References
  1. Kuehl GE, Murphy SE: N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Nov;31(11):1361-8. Pubmed: 14570768
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular weight:
60337.835
References
  1. Kuehl GE, Murphy SE: N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Nov;31(11):1361-8. Pubmed: 14570768
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The major substrates of this isozyme are eugenol > 4-methylumbelliferone > dihydrotestosterone (DHT) > androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) > testosterone > androsterone (ADT).
Gene Name:
UGT2B17
Uniprot ID:
O75795
Molecular weight:
61094.915
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A5
Uniprot ID:
P35504
Molecular weight:
60070.565
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B11
Uniprot ID:
O75310
Molecular weight:
61037.8
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the degradation of dermatan and keratan sulfates.
Gene Name:
GUSB
Uniprot ID:
P08236
Molecular weight:
74731.46
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWM9
Molecular weight:
60253.94
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q5DT02
Molecular weight:
59809.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q5DSZ6
Molecular weight:
59741.0
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID:
Q5DSZ7
Molecular weight:
59818.3