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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01310
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Alanine
DescriptionAlanine is a nonessential amino acid made in the body from the conversion of the carbohydrate pyruvate or the breakdown of DNA and the dipeptides carnosine and anserine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and is one of the most important amino acids released by muscle, functioning as a major energy source. Plasma alanine is often decreased when the BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids) are deficient. This finding may relate to muscle metabolism. Alanine is highly concentrated in meat products and other high-protein foods like wheat germ and cottage cheese. Alanine is an important participant as well as regulator in glucose metabolism. Alanine levels parallel blood sugar levels in both diabetes and hypoglycemia, and alanine reduces both severe hypoglycemia and the ketosis of diabetes. It is an important amino acid for lymphocyte reproduction and immunity. Alanine therapy has helped dissolve kidney stones in experimental animals. Normal alanine metabolism, like that of other amino acids, is highly dependent upon enzymes that contain vitamin B6. Alanine, like GABA, taurine and glycine, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(R)-2-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
(R)-AlanineChEBI
D-2-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
D-AlaChEBI
D-AlaninChEBI
D-alpha-AlanineChEBI
D-alpha-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
(R)-2-AminopropanoateGenerator
(2R)-2-AminopropanoateGenerator
D-2-AminopropionateGenerator
D-a-AlanineGenerator
D-α-alanineGenerator
D-a-AminopropionateGenerator
D-a-Aminopropionic acidGenerator
D-alpha-AminopropionateGenerator
D-α-aminopropionateGenerator
D-α-aminopropionic acidGenerator
AlanineHMDB
D(-)-a -AlanineHMDB
D(-)-alpha-AlanineHMDB
D-(-)-AlanineHMDB
delta-(-)-AlanineHMDB
delta-2-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
delta-AlanineHMDB
delta-alpha-AlanineHMDB
DL-AlanineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight89.0932
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight89.047678473
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional NameD-alanine
CAS Registry Number338-69-2
SMILES
C[C@@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2H,4H2,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=QNAYBMKLOCPYGJ-UWTATZPHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as d-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the D-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentD-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point292 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility165.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.912Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility447.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS0.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity20.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-597f42bcde0e9f005b7eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-ffef20b2a24280b6fac1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0007-9000000000-5494d4107e065019362aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-536fa384ea61b8df326eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-447340852e905814000eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-320cdf459ab1249aeeadView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e42a8e9c2a1c69fb6bb2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-2c2b7ae491c5edb0c9caView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4832fe79b009c4a4841eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-b70e34a4340b1eba96fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified78 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specifiedpropionic acidemia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022546
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID64234
KEGG Compound IDC00133
BioCyc IDD-ALANINE
BiGG ID33977
Wikipedia LinkD-Alanine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01310
Metagene LinkHMDB01310
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound71080
PDB IDDAL
ChEBI ID15570
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hamase K, Konno R, Morikawa A, Zaitsu K: Sensitive determination of D-amino acids in mammals and the effect of D-amino-acid oxidase activity on their amounts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1578-84. [16141519 ]
  2. D'Aniello A, Vetere A, Fisher GH, Cusano G, Chavez M, Petrucelli L: Presence of D-alanine in proteins of normal and Alzheimer human brain. Brain Res. 1992 Oct 2;592(1-2):44-8. [1450921 ]
  3. Fukushima T, Santa T, Homma H, Nagatomo R, Imai K: Determination of D-amino acids in serum from patients with renal dysfunction. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995 Aug;18(8):1130-2. [8535409 ]
  4. Nagata Y, Masui R, Akino T: The presence of free D-serine, D-alanine and D-proline in human plasma. Experientia. 1992 Oct 15;48(10):986-8. [1426150 ]
  5. Fisher GH, D'Aniello A, Vetere A, Padula L, Cusano GP, Man EH: Free D-aspartate and D-alanine in normal and Alzheimer brain. Brain Res Bull. 1991 Jun;26(6):983-5. [1933416 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.
Gene Name:
DAO
Uniprot ID:
P14920
Molecular weight:
39473.75