Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Carbon monoxide (HMDB01361)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-16 07:51:54 -0600
Update Date 2013-02-08 11:20:55 -0700
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Carbon monoxide
Description Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It is the product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds, notably in internal-combustion engines. It consists of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. It is a gas at room temperature. Carbon monoxide is a significantly toxic gas and is the most common type of fatal poisoning in many countries. Exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system and heart. Carbon monoxide has a higher diffusion coefficient compared to oxygen and the only enzyme in the human body that produces carbon monoxide is heme oxygenase which is located in all cells and breaks down heme. Because it has a higher diffusion coefficient than oxygen the body easily gets rid of any CO made. When CO is not ventilated it binds to hemoglobin, which is the principal oxygen-carrying compound in blood; this produces a compound known as carboxyhemoglobin. The traditional belief is that carbon monoxide toxicity arises from the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, which decreases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and inhibits the transport, delivery, and utilization of oxygen by the body. The affinity between hemoglobin and carbon monoxide is approximately 230 times stronger than the affinity between hemoglobin and oxygen so hemoglobin binds to carbon monoxide in preference to oxygen. Following poisoning, long-term sequelae often occur. Carbon monoxide can also have severe effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman. Despite its serious toxicity, CO is extremely useful and underpins much modern technology, being a precursor to a myriad of useful - even life-saving - products. Carbon monoxide, though thought of as a pollutant today, has always been present in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity. It occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the earth's mantle. Carbon monoxide contents of volcanic gases vary from less than 0.01% to as much as 2% depending on the volcano. It also occurs naturally in bushfires. Because natural sources of carbon monoxide are so variable from year to year, it is extremely difficult to accurately measure natural emissions of the gas. (wikipedia).
Structure Thumb
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  1. Carbon monoxide
  2. CO
Chemical Formula CO
Average Molecular Weight 28.0101
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 27.994914622
IUPAC Name Not Available
Traditional IUPAC Name Not Available
CAS Registry Number 124-38-9
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/CO/c1-2
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Class N/A
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • carbon oxide(ChEBI)
  • N/A
Direct Parent Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Status Detected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point -56.5 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 1.48 mg/mL at 25 °C Not Available
LogP 0.83 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP -0.73 ALOGPS
LogS -0.75 ALOGPS
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 26.23 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.94 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
72.0 +/- 25.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
350.0 +/- 178.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
    • Geigy Scientific Tables, 8th Rev edition, pp. 165-177. Edited by C. Lentner, West Cadwell, N.J.: Medical education Div., Ciba-Geigy Corp., Basel, Switzerland c1981-1992.
      Associated OMIM IDs None
      DrugBank ID Not Available
      DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
      Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
      Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
      FoodDB ID FDB022578
      KNApSAcK ID Not Available
      Chemspider ID 275 Link_out
      KEGG Compound ID C00237 Link_out
      BioCyc ID Not Available
      BiGG ID 1749973 Link_out
      Wikipedia Link Carbon monoxide Link_out
      NuGOwiki Link HMDB01361 Link_out
      Metagene Link HMDB01361 Link_out
      METLIN ID Not Available
      PubChem Compound 281 Link_out
      PDB ID CMO Link_out
      ChEBI ID 17245 Link_out
      Synthesis Reference Ivanova, Svetlana; Pitchon, Veronique; Petit, Corinne. Application of the direct exchange method in the preparation of gold catalysts supported on different oxide materials. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical (2006), 256(1-2), 278-283.
      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Not Available
      General References Not Available

      Name: Heme oxygenase 2
      Hemoglobin + FADH + Oxygen unknown Globin + Biliverdin + Carbon monoxide + Fe3+ + FAD + Water details
      Gene Name: HMOX2
      Uniprot ID: P30519 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Heme oxygenase 1
      Hemoglobin + FADH + Oxygen unknown Globin + Biliverdin + Carbon monoxide + Fe3+ + FAD + Water details
      Gene Name: HMOX1
      Uniprot ID: P09601 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Leukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: CYP4F3
      Uniprot ID: Q08477 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: KCNMA1
      Uniprot ID: Q12791 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: EIF2AK1
      Uniprot ID: Q9BQI3 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene dioxygenase
      1,2-Dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene + Oxygen unknown 3-Methylthiopropionic acid + Formic acid + Carbon monoxide details
      Gene Name: ADI1
      Uniprot ID: Q9BV57 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA