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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-09-23 05:25:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01394
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB05027
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHeparin
DescriptionHeparin is a highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. alpha-Heparin
  2. Clivarine
  3. Heparin Sodium
  4. Arteven
  5. Bemiparin
  6. Certoparin
  7. Clexane
  8. Dalteparin
  9. Enoxaparin
  10. Eparina
  11. Fraxiparin
  12. Heparin
  13. Heparin sulfate
  14. Heparin sulphate
  15. Heparinate
  16. Heparinic acid
  17. Heparinsodiumsalt
  18. Thromboliquine
Chemical FormulaC26H41NO34S4
Average Molecular Weight1039.85
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1039.039280225
IUPAC Name(2S,3S,4R,5R,6R)-6-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-6-{[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-carboxy-4,6-dihydroxy-5-(sulfooxy)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-2-hydroxy-4-(sulfomethyl)-5-(sulfooxy)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-3-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-[(sulfooxy)methyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name(2S,3S,4R,5R,6R)-6-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-6-{[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-carboxy-4,6-dihydroxy-5-(sulfooxy)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-2-hydroxy-4-(sulfomethyl)-5-(sulfooxy)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-3-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-[(sulfooxy)methyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxy
CAS Registry Number9005-49-6
SMILES
CC(=O)N[C@@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](COS(O)(=O)=O)O[C@@H]1O[C@H]1[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O[C@@H]2[C@@H](O)O[C@H](O[C@H]3[C@H](O)[C@@H](OS(O)(=O)=O)C(O)O[C@H]3C(O)=O)[C@H](OS(O)(=O)=O)[C@H]2CS(O)(=O)=O)O[C@@H]1C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H41NO34S4/c1-4(28)27-7-9(30)8(29)6(2-52-63(43,44)45)53-24(7)56-15-10(31)11(32)25(58-19(15)21(36)37)55-13-5(3-62(40,41)42)14(60-64(46,47)48)26(59-22(13)38)57-16-12(33)17(61-65(49,50)51)23(39)54-18(16)20(34)35/h5-19,22-26,29-33,38-39H,2-3H2,1H3,(H,27,28)(H,34,35)(H,36,37)(H,40,41,42)(H,43,44,45)(H,46,47,48)(H,49,50,51)/t5-,6+,7+,8+,9+,10+,11+,12-,13-,14+,15-,16-,17+,18+,19-,22-,23?,24+,25+,26-/m0/s1
InChI KeyZFGMDIBRIDKWMY-PASTXAENSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassTetrasaccharides
Sub ClassTetrahexoses
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Acetal
  • Alkanesulfonic Acid Derivative
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
  • Glucosamine
  • Glucuronic Acid Or Derivative
  • Glucuronide
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Hemiacetal
  • Mannosamine
  • O Glycosyl Compound
  • Organic Sulfuric Acid Monoester
  • Oxane
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
  • Sugar Acid
  • Sulfate Ester
  • Sulfonic Acid
  • Sulfonyl
Direct ParentTetrahexoses
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Anticoagulants
  • Heparins
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.08e+01 g/LNot Available
LogP-13.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility14.4 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-15ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.6ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count31ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count14ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area555.09ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity182.32ChemAxon
Polarizability86.52ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mast Cell
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01109
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022599
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID17216115
KEGG Compound IDC00374
BioCyc IDHEPARIN
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHeparin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01394
Metagene LinkHMDB01394
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound46507594
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28304
References
Synthesis ReferenceKuberan, Balagurunathan; Beeler, David L.; Lawrence, Roger; Lech, Miroslaw; Rosenberg, Robert D. Rapid Two-Step Synthesis of Mitrin from Heparosan: A Replacement for Heparin. Journal of the American Chemical Society (2003), 125(41), 12424-12425.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Brunnee T, Reddigari SR, Shibayama Y, Kaplan AP, Silverberg M: Mast cell derived heparin activates the contact system: a link to kinin generation in allergic reactions. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997 Jun;27(6):653-63. Pubmed: 9208186
  2. Betz G, Nowbakht P, Imboden R, Imanidis G: Heparin penetration into and permeation through human skin from aqueous and liposomal formulations in vitro. Int J Pharm. 2001 Oct 9;228(1-2):147-59. Pubmed: 11576777
  3. Sun Y, Chai TC: Effects of dimethyl sulphoxide and heparin on stretch-activated ATP release by bladder urothelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis. BJU Int. 2002 Sep;90(4):381-5. Pubmed: 12175393
  4. Kandrotas RJ: Heparin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992 May;22(5):359-74. Pubmed: 1505142
  5. Delhumeau A, Moreau X, Chapotte C, Houi N, Bigorgne JC: Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia syndrome: an underestimated etiology of adrenal hemorrhage. Intensive Care Med. 1993;19(8):475-7. Pubmed: 8294632
  6. Lortat-Jacob H, Brisson C, Guerret S, Morel G: Non-receptor-mediated tissue localization of human interferon-gamma: role of heparan sulfate/heparin-like molecules. Cytokine. 1996 Jul;8(7):557-66. Pubmed: 8891437
  7. Harig F, Meier C, Hakami L, Strasser R, Bretzger J, Munch F, Vestweber-Wilmes E, Singer H, Weyand M, Cesnjevar R: Does the additional use of heparin-coated extracorporeal circuits (ECC) optimize the effect of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) in pediatric perfusion? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Apr;54(3):168-72. Pubmed: 16639677
  8. Tonda R, Galan AM, Pino M, Hernandez MR, Ayats C, Pomar JL, Ordinas A, Escolar G: In vitro evaluation of platelet reactivity toward annuloplasty devices treated with heparin coating: studies under flow conditions. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005 Oct 1;75(1):192-8. Pubmed: 16044416
  9. Haram K, Bjorge L, Sandset PM: Successful preconceptional prophylactic treatment with combined acetyl salicylic acid and low-molecular heparin (Fragmin) in a case of antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome with prior life-threatening hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low-platelet syndrome: a case report. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Dec;84(12):1213-4. Pubmed: 16305714
  10. Harding SA, Din JN, Sarma J, Josephs DH, Fox KA, Newby DE: Promotion of proinflammatory interactions between platelets and monocytes by unfractionated heparin. Heart. 2006 Nov;92(11):1635-8. Epub 2006 May 18. Pubmed: 16709700
  11. Christensen K, Larsson R, Emanuelsson H, Elgue G, Larsson A: Effects on blood compatibility in vitro by combining a direct P2Y12 receptor inhibitor and heparin coating of stents. Platelets. 2006 Aug;17(5):318-27. Pubmed: 16928604
  12. Applebaum DM, Goldberg AP, Pykalisto OJ, Brunzell JD, Hazzard WR: Effect of estrogen on post-heparin lipolytic activity. Selective decline in hepatic triglyceride lipase. J Clin Invest. 1977 Apr;59(4):601-8. Pubmed: 845252
  13. Yeh RW, Everett BM, Foo SY, Dorer DJ, Laposata M, Van Cott EM, Jang IK: Predictors for the development of elevated anti-heparin/platelet factor 4 antibody titers in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Aug 1;98(3):419-21. Epub 2006 Jun 12. Pubmed: 16860036
  14. Harel A, Fainaru M, Rubinstein M, Tal N, Schwartz M: Fish apolipoprotein-A-I has heparin binding activity: implication for nerve regeneration. J Neurochem. 1990 Oct;55(4):1237-43. Pubmed: 2118944
  15. Bengtsson E, Aspberg A, Heinegard D, Sommarin Y, Spillmann D: The amino-terminal part of PRELP binds to heparin and heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 29;275(52):40695-702. Pubmed: 11007795
  16. Weaver JC, Vanbever R, Vaughan TE, Prausnitz MR: Heparin alters transdermal transport associated with electroporation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 29;234(3):637-40. Pubmed: 9175766
  17. Williams MS, Ng'alla LS: Heparin therapy leads to platelet activation and prolongation of PFA-100 closure time. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec;10(4):273-80. Pubmed: 16382263

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Receptor for basic fibroblast growth factor. Receptor for FGF23 in the presence of KL. A shorter form of the receptor could be a receptor for FGF1 (aFGF)
Gene Name:
FGFR1
Uniprot ID:
P11362
Molecular weight:
91866.9
General function:
Involved in heparin binding
Specific function:
Peptides at the N-terminal of HC-II have chemotactic activity for both monocytes and neutrophils
Gene Name:
SERPIND1
Uniprot ID:
P05546
Molecular weight:
57070.2
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory activity is greatly enhanced in the presence of heparin
Gene Name:
SERPINC1
Uniprot ID:
P01008
Molecular weight:
52601.9
General function:
Involved in lipid binding
Specific function:
Mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. It can serve as a ligand for the LDL (apo B/E) receptor and for the specific apo-E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of hepatic tissues
Gene Name:
APOE
Uniprot ID:
P02649
Molecular weight:
36153.8
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6)
Gene Name:
APP
Uniprot ID:
P05067
Molecular weight:
86942.7
General function:
Involved in collagen binding
Specific function:
Anastellin binds fibronectin and induces fibril formation. This fibronectin polymer, named superfibronectin, exhibits enhanced adhesive properties. Both anastellin and superfibronectin inhibit tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Anastellin activates p38 MAPK and inhibits lysophospholipid signaling
Gene Name:
FN1
Uniprot ID:
P02751
Molecular weight:
262623.1
General function:
Involved in lipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor
Gene Name:
APOB
Uniprot ID:
P04114
Molecular weight:
515600.1
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
The heparin-binding growth factors are angiogenic agents in vivo and are potent mitogens for a variety of cell types in vitro. There are differences in the tissue distribution and concentration of these 2 growth factors
Gene Name:
FGF2
Uniprot ID:
P09038
Molecular weight:
30769.7
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Growth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth
Gene Name:
VEGFA
Uniprot ID:
P15692
Molecular weight:
27042.2
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Heparin binding mitogenic protein. Has neurite extension activity
Gene Name:
PTN
Uniprot ID:
P21246
Molecular weight:
18941.9
General function:
Involved in fibroblast growth factor receptor binding
Specific function:
The heparin-binding growth factors are angiogenic agents in vivo and are potent mitogens for a variety of cell types in vitro. There are differences in the tissue distribution and concentration of these 2 growth factors
Gene Name:
FGF1
Uniprot ID:
P05230
Molecular weight:
17459.6
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Has heparin binding activity, and growth promoting activity. Involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development
Gene Name:
MDK
Uniprot ID:
P21741
Molecular weight:
15585.1
General function:
Involved in epidermal growth factor receptor binding
Specific function:
May be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation. It is mitogenic for fibroblasts and smooth muscle but not endothelial cells. It is able to bind EGF receptors with higher affinity than EGF itself and is a far more potent mitogen for smooth muscle cells than EGF. Also acts as a diphtheria toxin receptor
Gene Name:
HBEGF
Uniprot ID:
Q99075
Molecular weight:
23066.8
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Growth factor active on keratinocytes. Possible major paracrine effector of normal epithelial cell proliferation
Gene Name:
FGF7
Uniprot ID:
P21781
Molecular weight:
22509.1
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds
Specific function:
Endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) into heparan sulfate side chains and core proteoglycans. Participates in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and remodeling. Selectively cleaves the linkage between a glucuronic acid unit and an N-sulfo glucosamine unit carrying either a 3-O-sulfo or a 6-O-sulfo group. Can also cleave the linkage between a glucuronic acid unit and an N-sulfo glucosamine unit carrying a 2-O-sulfo group, but not linkages between a glucuronic acid unit and a 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid moiety. It is essentially inactive at neutral pH but becomes active under acidic conditions such as during tumor invasion and in inflammatory processes. Facilitates cell migration associated with metastasis, wound healing and inflammation. Enhances shedding of syndecans, and increases endothelial invasion and angiogenesis in myelomas. Acts as procoagulant by increasing the generation of activation factor X in the presence of tissue factor and activation factor VII. Increases cell adhesion to the extacellular matrix (ECM), independent of its enzymatic activity. Induces AKT1/PKB phosphorylation via lipid rafts increasing cell mobility and invasion. Heparin increases this AKT1/PKB activation. Regulates osteogenesis. Enhances angiogenesis through up-regulation of SRC-mediated activation of VEGF. Implicated in hair follicle inner root sheath differentiation and hair homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HPSE
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y251
Molecular weight:
61148.17
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
The gamma-CTF peptide, C30, is a potent enhancer of neuronal apoptosis
Gene Name:
APLP1
Uniprot ID:
P51693
Molecular weight:
72175.8
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
This is a neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte- and fibroblast-specific chemotactic glycoprotein. Binds heparin. The cytotoxic action is limited to many species of Gram- negative bacteria; this specificity may be explained by a strong affinity of the very basic N-terminal half for the negatively charged lipopolysaccharides that are unique to the Gram-negative bacterial outer envelope. It may play a role in mediating recruitment of monocytes in the second wave of inflammation. Has antibacterial activity against the Gram-nagative bacterium P.aeruginosa, this activity is inhibited by LPS from P.aeruginosa. Acting alone, it does not have antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria A.actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29532, A.actinomycetemcomitans NCTC 9709, A.actinomycetemcomitans FDC-Y4, H.aphrophilus ATCC 13252, E.corrodens ATCC 23834, C.sputigena ATCC 33123, Capnocytophaga sp ATCC 33124, Capnocytophaga sp ATCC 27872 or E.coli ML-35. Has antibacterial activity against C.sputigena ATCC 33123 when acting synergistically with either elastase or cathepsin G
Gene Name:
AZU1
Uniprot ID:
P20160
Molecular weight:
26885.4
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Can transform NIH 3T3 cells from a human stomach tumor (hst) and from karposi's sarcoma (KS3). It has a mitogenic activity
Gene Name:
FGF4
Uniprot ID:
P08620
Molecular weight:
22047.4
General function:
Involved in structural constituent of ribosome
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
RPL29
Uniprot ID:
P47914
Molecular weight:
17751.9
General function:
Involved in structural constituent of ribosome
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
RPL22
Uniprot ID:
P35268
Molecular weight:
14786.9
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Functions as an inhibitor of hair elongation by promoting progression from anagen, the growth phase of the hair follicle, into catagen the apoptosis-induced regression phase
Gene Name:
FGF5
Uniprot ID:
P12034
Molecular weight:
29550.5
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Can transform NIH 3T3 cells. Exhibits strong mitogenic and angiogenic properties
Gene Name:
FGF6
Uniprot ID:
P10767
Molecular weight:
22904.3
General function:
Involved in heparin binding
Specific function:
Acts as a carrier protein that release fibroblast- binding factors (FGFs) from the extracellular matrix (EM) storage and thus enhance the mitogenic activity of FGFs. Enhances FGF2 signaling during tissue repair, angiogenesis and in tumor growth
Gene Name:
FGFBP1
Uniprot ID:
Q14512
Molecular weight:
26264.1
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Heparin-binding protein, with mitogenic activity for fibroblasts. Acts as a transcriptional repressor
Gene Name:
HDGF
Uniprot ID:
P51858
Molecular weight:
26788.1
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Stimulates growth of the cells in an autocrine manner. Mediates hormonal action on the growth of cancer cells
Gene Name:
FGF8
Uniprot ID:
P55075
Molecular weight:
26525.3
General function:
Involved in growth factor activity
Specific function:
Could be involved in ear development
Gene Name:
FGF3
Uniprot ID:
P11487
Molecular weight:
26886.5