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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01423
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCoenzyme A
DescriptionCoenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. It is adapted from beta-mercaptoethylamine, panthothenate and adenosine triphosphate. Coenzyme A is synthesized in a five-step process from pantothenate and cysteine. In the first step Pantothenate (vitamin B5) is phosphorylated to 4'-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase (PanK; CoaA; CoaX)In the second step, a cysteine is added to 4'-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPC-DC; CoaB) to form 4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine (PPC). In the third step, PPC is decarboxylated to 4'-phosphopantetheine by phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (CoaC). In the fourth step, 4'-phosphopantetheine is adenylylated to form dephospho-CoA by the enzyme phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase (CoaD)Finally, dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated using ATP to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase (CoaE). Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. CoA assists in transferring fatty acids from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA. When it is not attached to an acyl group, it is usually referred to as 'CoASH' or 'HSCoA'. Coenzyme A is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule itself. It is the precursor to HMG CoA, which is a vital component in cholesterol and ketone synthesis. Furthermore, it contributes an acetyl group to choline to produce acetylcholine, in a reaction catalysed by choline acetyltransferase. Its main task is conveying the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Acetoacetyl coenzyme A sodium salt
  2. CoA
  3. CoA hydrate
  4. CoA-SH
  5. CoASH
  6. Coenzyme A
  7. Coenzyme A hydrate
  8. Coenzyme A-SH
  9. Coenzyme ASH
  10. Coenzymes A
  11. Depot-Zeel
  12. Propionyl CoA
  13. Propionyl Coenzyme A
  14. S-Propanoate
  15. S-Propanoate CoA
  16. S-Propanoate Coenzyme A
  17. S-Propanoic acid
  18. S-Propionate CoA
  19. S-Propionate Coenzyme A
  20. Zeel
  21. [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl 3-hydroxy-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulfanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl dihydrogen diphosphate
Chemical FormulaC21H36N7O16P3S
Average Molecular Weight767.534
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight767.115208365
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-({[hydroxy({hydroxy[3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-({2-[(2-sulfanylethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)propoxy]phosphoryl}oxy)phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Name[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-[({hydroxy[hydroxy(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-({2-[(2-sulfanylethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)propoxy)phosphoryl]oxyphosphoryl}oxy)methyl]oxolan-3-yl]oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number85-61-0
SMILES
CC(C)(COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N)C(O)C(=O)NCCC(=O)NCCS
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H36N7O16P3S/c1-21(2,16(31)19(32)24-4-3-12(29)23-5-6-48)8-41-47(38,39)44-46(36,37)40-7-11-15(43-45(33,34)35)14(30)20(42-11)28-10-27-13-17(22)25-9-26-18(13)28/h9-11,14-16,20,30-31,48H,3-8H2,1-2H3,(H,23,29)(H,24,32)(H,36,37)(H,38,39)(H2,22,25,26)(H2,33,34,35)/t11-,14-,15-,16?,20-/m1/s1
InChI KeyRGJOEKWQDUBAIZ-DRCCLKDXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine Ribonucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Alkylthiol
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide Phosphate
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Purine
  • Purine Ribonucleoside 3',5' Bisphosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
  • Thiol (Sulfanyl Compound)
Direct ParentCoenzyme A and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Bile acid biosynthesis
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
  • Component of Fatty acid metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Component of Inositol metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.64ALOGPS
logP-0.61ALOGPS
logP-6.8ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area346.56 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity162.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability66.81 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00052map01040
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035map00120
Butyrate MetabolismSMP00073map00650
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051map00071
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00482Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00481Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00030Not Available
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027map00770
Phenylacetate MetabolismSMP00126map00360
Plasmalogen SynthesisSMP00479Not Available
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022614
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6557
KEGG Compound IDC00010
BioCyc IDCO-A
BiGG ID33502
Wikipedia LinkCoenzyme A
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01423
Metagene LinkHMDB01423
METLIN ID6235
PubChem Compound6816
PDB ID1A59
ChEBI ID1146900
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Wendel U, Zass R, Leupold D: Contribution of odd-numbered fatty acid oxidation to propionate production in neonates with methylmalonic and propionic acidaemias. Eur J Pediatr. 1993 Dec;152(12):1021-3. Pubmed: 8131803
  2. Bergstrom T, Greter J, Levin AH, Steen G, Tryding N, Wass U: Propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: case report, effect of low-protein diet and identification of 3-oxo-2-methylvaleric acid 3-hydroxy-2-methylvaleric acid, and maleic acid in urine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1981 Apr;41(2):117-26. Pubmed: 7313494
  3. Roe CR, Sweetman L, Roe DS, David F, Brunengraber H: Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul;110(2):259-69. Pubmed: 12122118
  4. Yano S, Li L, Le TP, Moseley K, Guedalia A, Lee J, Gonzalez I, Boles RG: Infantile mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome associated with methylmalonic aciduria and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiencies in two unrelated patients: a new phenotype of mtDNA depletion syndrome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26(5):481-8. Pubmed: 14518828
  5. Kretschmer RE, Bachmann C: Methylcitric acid determination in amniotic fluid by electron-impact mass fragmentography. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1988 May;26(5):345-8. Pubmed: 3404093
  6. Osmundsen H, Bremer J, Pedersen JI: Metabolic aspects of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Sep 11;1085(2):141-58. Pubmed: 1892883
  7. Reihner E, Angelin B, Rudling M, Ewerth S, Bjorkhem I, Einarsson K: Regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in humans: stimulatory effects of cholestyramine on HMG-CoA reductase activity and low density lipoprotein receptor expression in gallstone patients. J Lipid Res. 1990 Dec;31(12):2219-26. Pubmed: 2090716
  8. Salen G, Batta AK, Tint GS, Shefer S: Comparative effects of lovastatin and chenodeoxycholic acid on plasma cholestanol levels and abnormal bile acid metabolism in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Metabolism. 1994 Aug;43(8):1018-22. Pubmed: 8052141
  9. Lehnert W, Junker A: [2-Methyl-3-oxovaleric acid: a characteristic metabolite in propionic acidemia] Clin Chim Acta. 1980 May 21;104(1):47-51. Pubmed: 7389125

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 186 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP citrate synthase activity
Specific function:
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.
Gene Name:
ACLY
Uniprot ID:
P53396
Molecular weight:
120838.27
Reactions
ADP + Phosphoric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic acid → Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme A → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Functions as histone acetyltransferase and regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling. Acetylates all four core histones in nucleosomes. Histone acetylation gives an epigenetic tag for transcriptional activation. Mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. Also functions as acetyltransferase for nonhistone targets. Acetylates 'Lys-131' of ALX1 and acts as its coactivator in the presence of CREBBP. Acetylates SIRT2 and is proposed to indirectly increase the transcriptional activity of TP53 through acetylation and subsequent attenuation of SIRT2 deacetylase function. Acetylates HDAC1 leading to its inactivation and modulation of transcription. Acts as a TFAP2A-mediated transcriptional coactivator in presence of CITED2. Plays a role as a coactivator of NEUROD1-dependent transcription of the secretin and p21 genes and controls terminal differentiation of cells in the intestinal epithelium. Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. Can also mediate transcriptional repression. Binds to and may be involved in the transforming capacity of the adenovirus E1A protein. In case of HIV-1 infection, it is recruited by the viral protein Tat. Regulates Tat's transactivating activity and may help inducing chromatin remodeling of proviral genes. Acetylates FOXO1 and enhances its transcriptional activity.
Gene Name:
EP300
Uniprot ID:
Q09472
Molecular weight:
264159.725
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BWD1
Molecular weight:
41350.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation. Also acetylates non-histone proteins, like NCOA3 and FOXO1. Binds specifically to phosphorylated CREB and enhances its transcriptional activity toward cAMP-responsive genes. Acts as a coactivator of ALX1 in the presence of EP300.
Gene Name:
CREBBP
Uniprot ID:
Q92793
Molecular weight:
260991.825
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular weight:
19154.905
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyldiaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular weight:
64632.86
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + CO(2)details
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT1
Uniprot ID:
P18440
Molecular weight:
33898.445
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetylarylaminedetails
2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene + Acetyl-CoA → 4-Acetamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene + Coenzyme Adetails
Acetyl-CoA + Isoniazid → Coenzyme A + Acetylisoniaziddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Acetylhydrazine → Coenzyme A + N,N'-Diacetylhydrazinedetails
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens.
Gene Name:
NAT2
Uniprot ID:
P11245
Molecular weight:
33570.245
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetylarylaminedetails
2,4-Diamino-6-nitrotoluene + Acetyl-CoA → 4-Acetamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene + Coenzyme Adetails
Acetyl-CoA + Isoniazid → Coenzyme A + Acetylisoniaziddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Acetylhydrazine → Coenzyme A + N,N'-Diacetylhydrazinedetails
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular weight:
70580.325
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + CO(2)details
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Essential for RNA polymerase III to make a number of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, including 5S RNA, tRNA, and adenovirus-associated (VA) RNA of both cellular and viral origin. Has histone acetyltransferase activity (HAT) with unique specificity for free and nucleosomal H3. May cooperate with GTF3C5 in facilitating the recruitment of TFIIIB and RNA polymerase through direct interactions with BRF1, POLR3C and POLR3F. May be localized close to the A box.
Gene Name:
GTF3C4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKN8
Molecular weight:
91981.635
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes acetyl-CoA to acetate and CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOT12
Uniprot ID:
Q8WYK0
Molecular weight:
62033.46
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water → Coenzyme A + Acetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses.
Gene Name:
CHAT
Uniprot ID:
P28329
Molecular weight:
70425.285
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Choline → Coenzyme A + Acetylcholine details
General function:
Involved in transcription coactivator activity
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Plays a central role in creating a multisubunit coactivator complex, which probably acts via remodeling of chromatin. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (GR and ER), retinoids (RARs and RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs), vitamin D3 (VDR) and prostanoids (PPARs). Displays histone acetyltransferase activity. Also involved in the coactivation of the NF-kappa-B pathway via its interaction with the NFKB1 subunit. Interacts with PSMB9.
Gene Name:
NCOA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6Q9
Molecular weight:
154399.59
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Functions as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) to promote transcriptional activation. Has significant histone acetyltransferase activity with core histones (H3 and H4), and also with nucleosome core particles. Inhibits cell-cycle progression and counteracts the mitogenic activity of the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. In case of HIV-1 infection, it is recruited by the viral protein Tat. Regulates Tat's transactivating activity and may help inducing chromatin remodeling of proviral genes.
Gene Name:
KAT2B
Uniprot ID:
Q92831
Molecular weight:
93012.295
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria.
Gene Name:
CRAT
Uniprot ID:
P43155
Molecular weight:
70875.095
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Acetylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular weight:
20023.8
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyldiaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescinedetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.
Gene Name:
AANAT
Uniprot ID:
Q16613
Molecular weight:
23343.8
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylaminedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Serotonin → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylserotonindetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Abolishes BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.
Gene Name:
ACAA2
Uniprot ID:
P42765
Molecular weight:
41923.82
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAdetails
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAdetails
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoAdetails
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAdetails
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Has histone acetyltransferase activity, with a preference for histone H4.
Gene Name:
CDY1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6F8
Molecular weight:
60472.605
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Molecular weight:
273424.06
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]details
Malonyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → Coenzyme A + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]details
Acetyl-CoA + Acyl-carrier protein → Coenzyme A + Acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein]details
Malonyl-CoA + Acyl-carrier protein → Coenzyme A + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein]details
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex which is involved in transcriptional activation of select genes principally by acetylation of nucleosomal histones H4 and H2A. This modification may both alter nucleosome-DNA interactions and promote interaction of the modified histones with other proteins which positively regulate transcription. This complex may be required for the activation of transcriptional programs associated with oncogene and proto-oncogene mediated growth induction, tumor suppressor mediated growth arrest and replicative senescence, apoptosis, and DNA repair. NuA4 may also play a direct role in DNA repair when recruited to sites of DNA damage. Directly acetylates and activates ATM. In case of HIV-1 infection, interaction with the viral Tat protein leads to KAT5 polyubiquitination and targets it to degradation.
Gene Name:
KAT5
Uniprot ID:
Q92993
Molecular weight:
56291.915
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular weight:
78579.11
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Plays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Gene Name:
ACAT1
Uniprot ID:
P24752
Molecular weight:
45199.2
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transcription coactivator activity
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent transactivation activity than isoform 1 and isoform 3.
Gene Name:
NCOA1
Uniprot ID:
Q15788
Molecular weight:
156755.44
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS2
Uniprot ID:
P54868
Molecular weight:
52481.065
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular weight:
74625.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CS
Uniprot ID:
O75390
Molecular weight:
51712.025
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid → Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Citric acid + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
May have histone acetyltransferase activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CDY2A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6F7
Molecular weight:
60523.72
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + [histone] → Coenzyme A + acetyl-[histone]details
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAA1
Uniprot ID:
P09110
Molecular weight:
34664.46
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAdetails
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAdetails
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoAdetails
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAdetails
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAdetails
OPC6-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC8-CoAdetails
OPC4-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC6-CoAdetails
(+)-7-Isojasmonic acid CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC4-CoAdetails
Cervonyl coenzyme A + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-3-Oxotetracosahexa-6,9,12,15,18,21-enoyl-CoAdetails
Docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-Oxotetracosapenta-6,9,12,15,18-enoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular weight:
43295.255
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HADHB
Uniprot ID:
P55084
Molecular weight:
51293.955
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoacyl-CoAdetails
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoAdetails
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoAdetails
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoAdetails
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoAdetails
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoAdetails
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in glycine C-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCAT
Uniprot ID:
O75600
Molecular weight:
47973.79
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine → Coenzyme A + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic aciddetails
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine → Coenzyme A + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular weight:
42932.855
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular weight:
57839.31
Reactions
2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + Coenzyme A + Water + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbonic acid + NADHdetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD(P)(+) → Acetyl-CoA + CO(2) + NAD(P)Hdetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NADP → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NADP → Malonyl-CoA + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Methylmalonyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GNPNAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q96EK6
Molecular weight:
20748.965
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Glucosamine 6-phosphate → Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS1
Uniprot ID:
Q01581
Molecular weight:
57293.105
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular weight:
54176.91
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular weight:
68996.03
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine → Coenzyme A + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysinedetails
Acetyl-CoA + Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine → Coenzyme A + [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysinedetails
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. In contrast to DGAT2 it is not essential for survival. May be involved in VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) assembly. In liver, plays a role in esterifying exogenous fatty acids to glycerol. Functions as the major acyl-CoA retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) in the skin, where it acts to maintain retinoid homeostasis and prevent retinoid toxicity leading to skin and hair disorders.
Gene Name:
DGAT1
Uniprot ID:
O75907
Molecular weight:
55277.735
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + 1,2-diacylglycerol → Coenzyme A + triacylglyceroldetails
Acyl-CoA + Vitamin A → Coenzyme A + Retinyl esterdetails
Triacylglycerol + Coenzyme A → 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycerol + Acyl-CoAdetails
Acyl-CoA + Vitamin A → Coenzyme A + Retinyl esterdetails
hexadecanoyl-CoA + Vitamin A → Coenzyme A + Retinyl palmitatedetails
hexadecanoyl-CoA + 11-cis-Retinol → Coenzyme A + 11-cis-Retinyl palmitatedetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.
Gene Name:
CROT
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKG9
Molecular weight:
10213.63
Reactions
Octanoyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Octanoylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT1B
Uniprot ID:
Q92523
Molecular weight:
83890.705
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Palmitoylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of the acyl group of long-chain fatty acid-CoA conjugates onto carnitine, an essential step for the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent beta-oxidation in the mitochondrion. Plays an important role in triglyceride metabolism.
Gene Name:
CPT1A
Uniprot ID:
P50416
Molecular weight:
86238.415
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Palmitoylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT2
Uniprot ID:
P23786
Molecular weight:
73776.335
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Palmitoylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT1C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCG5
Molecular weight:
89712.575
Reactions
hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Palmitoylcarnitinedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl moiety from malonyl-CoA to the free thiol group of the phosphopantetheine arm of the mitochondrial ACP protein (NDUFAB1). This suggests the existence of the biosynthesis of fatty acids in mitochondrias.
Gene Name:
MCAT
Uniprot ID:
Q8IVS2
Molecular weight:
19175.775
Reactions
Malonyl-CoA + [acyl-carrier-protein] → Coenzyme A + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]details
Malonyl-CoA + Acyl-carrier protein → Coenzyme A + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein]details
General function:
Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
Specific function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Molecular weight:
48179.59
Reactions
Oxoadipic acid + Coenzyme A + NAD → Glutaryl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Mediates in vitro the transfer of all common phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides between membranes. May play a role in regulating steroidogenesis.
Gene Name:
SCP2
Uniprot ID:
P22307
Molecular weight:
34974.505
Reactions
3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholanoyl-CoA + Propionyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-24-oxo-5-beta-cholestanoyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Choloyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-24-oxocholestanoyl-CoAdetails
Propionyl-CoA + Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-24-oxocholestanoyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA binding
Specific function:
Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase. May provide cholesteryl esters for lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes and intestinal mucosa.
Gene Name:
SOAT2
Uniprot ID:
O75908
Molecular weight:
59895.735
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Cholesterol → Coenzyme A + cholesterol esterdetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of fatty acid-cholesterol esters. Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase.
Gene Name:
SOAT1
Uniprot ID:
P35610
Molecular weight:
58130.665
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Cholesterol → Coenzyme A + cholesterol esterdetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 186 proteins in total.