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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-09-27 08:24:07 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01505
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBenzene
DescriptionToxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon biproduct of coal distillation. Chronic benzene exposure produces hematotoxicity, bone marrow dysplasia (Displasia is a pre-neoplastic or pre-cancerous change). (PMID 16183116 ). It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Bicarburet OF hydrogenChEBI
Coal naphthaChEBI
Mineral naphthaChEBI
Phenyl hydrideChEBI
Aromatic alkaneHMDB
Benzol 90HMDB
Carbon oilHMDB
Motor benzolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H6
Average Molecular Weight78.1118
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight78.046950192
IUPAC Namebenzene
Traditional Namebenzene
CAS Registry Number71-43-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzene and substituted derivatives. These are aromatic compounds containing one monocyclic ring system consisting of benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzene and substituted derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Biological Location:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

Route of exposure:


Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

    Gastrointestinal disorders:


    Psychiatric disorders:

    Blood and lymphatic system disorders:


Indirect biological role:

Environmental role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point5.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.79 mg/mLNot Available
LogP2.13HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.07 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity26.06 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.89 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HP 5970) , Positivesplash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (FINNIGAN-MAT 4500) , Positivesplash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004i-9000000000-08f396d6cb4660e57caaView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
Tissue Location
  • Bone Marrow
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Skin
PathwaysNot Available
No entries found
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000384 (0.000320-0.000448) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • National Health a...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000307 (0.000256-0.000384) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • National Health a...
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothCeliac disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012843
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID236
KEGG Compound IDC01407
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linkbenzene
PubChem Compound241
ChEBI ID16716
Synthesis ReferenceCopisarow, Maurice; Long, Cyril N H. The Friedel-Crafts' reaction. II. Migration of halogen atoms in the benzene nucleus. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions (1921), 119 442-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Wiwanitkit V, Soogarun S, Suwansaksri J: Urine phenol and myeloperoxidase index: an observation in benzene exposed subjects. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004 Aug;45(8):1643-5. [PubMed:15370219 ]
  2. Wang S, Chen H, Wang X: [Studies on relationship between exposure to low concentration of mixed benzene and lower quality of semen and very early fetal loss]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2000 Sep;34(5):271-3. [PubMed:11372393 ]
  3. Zhang L, Wang Y, Shang N, Smith MT: Benzene metabolites induce the loss and long arm deletion of chromosomes 5 and 7 in human lymphocytes. Leuk Res. 1998 Feb;22(2):105-13. [PubMed:9593466 ]
  4. Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Morozzi G: Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the serum-mediated increase of benzoquinone genotoxicity. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005 Oct;46(3):156-63. [PubMed:15920754 ]
  5. Turteltaub KW, Mani C: Benzene metabolism in rodents at doses relevant to human exposure from urban air. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2003 Feb;(113):1-26; discussion 27-35. [PubMed:12675491 ]
  6. Irons RD, Stillman WS: Impact of benzene metabolites on differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1247-50. [PubMed:9118900 ]
  7. Rothman N, Li GL, Dosemeci M, Bechtold WE, Marti GE, Wang YZ, Linet M, Xi LQ, Lu W, Smith MT, Titenko-Holland N, Zhang LP, Blot W, Yin SN, Hayes RB: Hematotoxicity among Chinese workers heavily exposed to benzene. Am J Ind Med. 1996 Mar;29(3):236-46. [PubMed:8833776 ]
  8. Barbera N, Bulla G, Romano G: A fatal case of benzene poisoning. J Forensic Sci. 1998 Nov;43(6):1250-1. [PubMed:9846407 ]
  9. Rolle-Kampczyk UE, Rehwagen M, Franck U, Weiss H, Krumbiegel P, Herbarth O: Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Apr 10;162(2-3):234-8. Epub 2005 Oct 19. [PubMed:16242870 ]
  10. Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Zhang L, Gunn L, McCarthy D, Woodbury RL, McGuire M, Podust VN, Li G, Chatterjee N, Mu R, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT: Decreased levels of CXC-chemokines in serum of benzene-exposed workers identified by array-based proteomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22;102(47):17041-6. Epub 2005 Nov 14. [PubMed:16286641 ]
  11. Mathews JM, De Costa KS: Absorption, metabolism, and disposition of 1,3-diphenyl-1-triazene in rats and mice after oral, i.v., and dermal administration. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Dec;27(12):1499-504. [PubMed:10570033 ]
  12. Gut I, Nedelcheva V, Soucek P, Stopka P, Tichavska B: Cytochromes P450 in benzene metabolism and involvement of their metabolites and reactive oxygen species in toxicity. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1211-8. [PubMed:9118895 ]
  13. Irons RD, Lv L, Gross SA, Ye X, Bao L, Wang XQ, Ryder J, Armstrong TW, Zhou Y, Miao L, Le AT, Kerzic PJ, Ni W, Fu H: Chronic exposure to benzene results in a unique form of dysplasia. Leuk Res. 2005 Dec;29(12):1371-80. Epub 2005 Sep 23. [PubMed:16183116 ]
  14. Xiao G, Pan C, Cai Y, Lin H, Fu Z: Effect of benzene, toluene, xylene on the semen quality and the function of accessory gonad of exposed workers. Ind Health. 2001 Apr;39(2):206-10. [PubMed:11341554 ]
  15. Dees C, Askari M, Henley D: Carcinogenic potential of benzene and toluene when evaluated using cyclin-dependent kinase activation and p53-DNA binding. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1289-92. [PubMed:9118908 ]
  16. Ward E, Hornung R, Morris J, Rinsky R, Wild D, Halperin W, Guthrie W: Risk of low red or white blood cell count related to estimated benzene exposure in a rubberworker cohort (1940-1975) Am J Ind Med. 1996 Mar;29(3):247-57. [PubMed:8833777 ]
  17. Seaton MJ, Schlosser P, Medinsky MA: In vitro conjugation of benzene metabolites by human liver: potential influence of interindividual variability on benzene toxicity. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Jul;16(7):1519-27. [PubMed:7614685 ]
  18. Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Romeo L, Cerpelloni M, Bianchin M, Tonello A: Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 1;235(1-3):247-52. [PubMed:10535123 ]
  19. Ress NB: NTP Technical Report on the metabolism, toxicity and predicted carcinogenicity of diazoaminobenzene (CAS No. 136-35-6). Toxic Rep Ser. 2002 Sep;(73):1-23, A1-C6. [PubMed:12370695 ]
  20. Surralles J, Autio K, Nylund L, Jarventaus H, Norppa H, Veidebaum T, Sorsa M, Peltonen K: Molecular cytogenetic analysis of buccal cells and lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Apr;18(4):817-23. [PubMed:9111220 ]