Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-02-22 10:57:58 UTC
Update Date2013-05-30 19:45:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01859
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetaminophen
DescriptionThe excellent tolerability of therapeutic doses of paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a major factor in the very wide use of the drug. The major problem in the use of paracetamol is its hepatotoxicity after an overdose. Hepatotoxicity has also been reported after therapeutic doses, but critical analysis indicates that most patients with alleged toxicity from therapeutic doses have taken overdoses. Importantly, prospective studies indicate that therapeutic doses of paracetamol are an unlikely cause of hepatotoxicity in patients who ingest moderate to large amounts of alcohol. (PMID 15733027 ). Single doses of paracetamol are effective analgesics for acute postoperative pain and give rise to few adverse effects. (PMID 14974073 ). Acetaminophen (AAP) overdose and the resulting hepatotoxicity is an important clinical problem. In addition, AAP is widely used as a prototype hepatotoxin to study mechanisms of chemical-induced cell injury and to test the hepatoprotective potential of new drugs and herbal medicines. Because of its importance, the mechanisms of AAP-induced liver cell injury have been extensively investigated and controversially discussed for many years. (PMID 16863451 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 4'-Hydroxyacetanilide
  2. 4-(Acetylamino)phenol
  3. 4-Acetamidophenol
  4. 4-Acetaminophenol
  5. 4-Hydroxyacetanilide
  6. 4-Hydroxyanilid kyseliny octove
  7. A-Per
  8. A.F. Anacin
  9. Abenol
  10. Abensanil
  11. Abrol
  12. Abrolet
  13. Acamol
  14. Accu-Tap
  15. Acenol
  16. Acephen
  17. Acertol
  18. Aceta Elixir
  19. Aceta Tablets
  20. Acetagesic
  21. Acetalgin
  22. Acetaminofen
  23. Acetaminophen
  24. Acetaminophen Uniserts
  25. Acetamol
  26. Acetofen
  27. Actamin
  28. Actamin Extra
  29. Actamin Super
  30. Actifed Plus
  31. Actimol Chewable Tablets
  32. Actimol Children'S Suspension
  33. Actimol Infants' Suspension
  34. Actimol Junior Strength Caplets
  35. Actron
  36. Afebrin
  37. Afebryl
  38. Aferadol
  39. Algesidal
  40. Algina
  41. Algomol
  42. Algotropyl
  43. Allay
  44. alpha-Per
  45. Alpiny
  46. Alpinyl
  47. Alvedon
  48. Amadil
  49. Aminofen
  50. Aminofen Max
  51. Anacin-3
  52. Anacin-3 Extra Strength
  53. Anadin dla dzieci
  54. Anaflon
  55. Analter
  56. Anapap
  57. Andox
  58. Anelix
  59. Anexsia
  60. Anexsia 10/660
  61. Anexsia 5/325
  62. Anexsia 7.5/325
  63. Anexsia 7.5/650
  64. Anhiba
  65. Anoquan
  66. Anti-Algos
  67. Antidol
  68. Apacet
  69. Apacet Capsules
  70. Apacet Elixir
  71. Apacet Extra Strength Caplets
  72. Apacet Extra Strength Tablets
  73. Apacet Regular Strength Tablets
  74. Apadon
  75. Apamid
  76. Apamide
  77. APAP
  78. Apitrelal
  79. Apo-Acetaminophen
  80. Arfen
  81. Asetam
  82. Asomal
  83. Aspac
  84. Aspirin Free Anacin Maximum Strength Caplets
  85. Aspirin Free Anacin Maximum Strength Gel Caplets
  86. Aspirin Free Anacin Maximum Strength Tablets
  87. Aspirin-Free Anacin
  88. Aspirin-Free Excedrin Caplets
  89. Asplin
  90. Atasol Caplets
  91. Atasol Drops
  92. Atasol Forte Caplets
  93. Atasol Forte Tablets
  94. Atasol Oral Solution
  95. Atasol Tablets
  96. Atralidon
  97. Babikan
  98. Bacetamol
  99. Bancap
  100. Bancap Hc
  101. Banesin
  102. Bayer Select Allergy-Sinus
  103. Bayer Select Head Cold
  104. Bayer Select Headache Pain
  105. Bayer Select Maximum Strength Headache Pain Relief Formula
  106. Bayer Select Menstrual Multi-Symptom
  107. Bayer Select Sinus Pain Relief
  108. Ben-u-ron
  109. Benmyo
  110. Bickie-mol
  111. Biocetamol
  112. Bucet
  113. Butalbital
  114. Butapap
  115. Cadafen
  116. Calapol
  117. Calmanticold
  118. Calpol
  119. Capital with Codeine
  120. Captin
  121. Causalon
  122. Cefalex
  123. Cetadol
  124. Children'S Acetaminophen Elixir Drops
  125. Children'S Acetaminophen Oral Solution
  126. Children'S Tylenol Chewable
  127. Claradol Codeine
  128. Clixodyne
  129. Co-Gesic
  130. Cod-Acamol Forte
  131. Codabrol
  132. Codalgin
  133. Codapane
  134. Codicet
  135. Codisal
  136. Codisal Forte
  137. Codoliprane
  138. Codral Pain Relief
  139. Cofamol
  140. Conacetol
  141. Contac Cough & Sore Throat Formula
  142. Contra-Schmerz P
  143. Coricidin
  144. Coricidin D
  145. Coricidin Sinus
  146. Cosutone
  147. Croix Blanche
  148. Cuponol
  149. Curadon
  150. Curpol
  151. Custodial
  152. Dapa X-S
  153. Darocet
  154. Darvocet
  155. Darvocet-N 50
  156. Datril
  157. Datril Extra-Strength
  158. Daygrip
  159. Demilets
  160. Deminofen
  161. Democyl
  162. Demogripal
  163. Desfebre
  164. Dhamol
  165. Dhc Plus
  166. Dial-a-gesic
  167. Dial-alpha-gesic
  168. Dimindol
  169. Dirox
  170. Disprol
  171. Dol-Stop
  172. Dolcor
  173. Dolefin
  174. Dolegrippin
  175. Dolene Ap-65
  176. Dolgesic
  177. Doliprane
  178. Dolko
  179. Dolofugin
  180. Doloreduct
  181. Dolorfug
  182. Dolorol Forte
  183. Dolorstop
  184. Dolotec
  185. Dolprone
  186. Dorocoff
  187. Dresan
  188. Dristan Cold No Drowsiness
  189. Dristancito
  190. Duracetamol
  191. Duradyne Dhc
  192. Durapan
  193. Dymadon
  194. Dymadon Co
  195. Dymadon Forte
  196. Dypap
  197. Ecosetol
  198. Elixodyne
  199. Empracet
  200. Endecon
  201. Enelfa
  202. Eneril
  203. Esgic
  204. Esgic-Plus
  205. Eu-Med
  206. Excedrin
  207. Excedrin Caplets
  208. Excedrin Extra Strength Caplets
  209. Excipain
  210. Exdol
  211. Exdol Strong
  212. Fanalgic
  213. Farmadol
  214. Febranine
  215. Febrectal
  216. Febrectol
  217. Febrex
  218. Febricet
  219. Febridol
  220. Febrilix
  221. Febrin
  222. Febrinol
  223. Febro-Gesic
  224. Febrolin
  225. Femcet
  226. Fendon
  227. Fensum
  228. Fepanil
  229. Feverall Junior Strength
  230. Feverall Sprinkle Caps Junior Strength
  231. Fevor
  232. Finimal
  233. Finiweh
  234. Fioricet
  235. Fluparmol
  236. Fortalidon P
  237. Freka-cetamol
  238. Gattaphen T
  239. Gelocatil
  240. Geluprane
  241. Genapap Children'S Elixir
  242. Genapap Children'S Tablets
  243. Genapap Extra Strength Caplets
  244. Genapap Extra Strength Tablets
  245. Genapap Regular Strength Tablets
  246. Genebs Extra Strength Caplets
  247. Genebs Regular Strength Tablets
  248. Genebs X-Tra
  249. Geralgine-P
  250. Gripin Bebe
  251. Grippostad
  252. Gynospasmine
  253. Hedex
  254. Helon N
  255. Homoolan
  256. Hy-Phen
  257. Hycomine Compound
  258. Hydrocet
  259. Ildamol
  260. Inalgex
  261. Infadrops
  262. Infants' Feverall
  263. Influbene N
  264. Injectapap
  265. Intensin
  266. Janupap
  267. Junior Disprol
  268. Kataprin
  269. Kinder Finimal
  270. Korum
  271. Kratofin simplex
  272. Labamol
  273. Lekadol
  274. Lemgrip
  275. Lemsip
  276. Lestemp
  277. Liquagesic
  278. Liquigesic Co
  279. Liquiprin
  280. Liquiprin Children'S Elixir
  281. Liquiprin Infants" Drops
  282. Lonarid
  283. Lonarid Mono
  284. Lorcet-Hd
  285. Lortab
  286. Lupocet
  287. Lyteca
  288. Lyteca Syrup
  289. Magnidol
  290. Malex N
  291. Malgis
  292. Malidens
  293. Maxadol
  294. Medigesic Plus
  295. Medinol Paediatric
  296. Medocodene
  297. Melabon Infantil
  298. Mexalen
  299. Midol Maximum Strength
  300. Midol PM Night Time Formula
  301. Midol Regular Strength
  302. Midol Teen Formula
  303. Migraleve Yellow
  304. Minafen
  305. Minoset
  306. Miralgin
  307. Momentum
  308. Mono Praecimed
  309. Multin
  310. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)acetamide
  311. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol
  312. N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol
  313. Naldegesic
  314. NAPA
  315. Napafen
  316. Napap
  317. Naprinol
  318. Nealgyl
  319. Nebs
  320. Neo-Fepramol
  321. NeoCitran
  322. Neodol
  323. Neodolito
  324. Neopap
  325. Neotrend
  326. Neuridon
  327. New Cortal for Children
  328. NilnOcen
  329. Nina
  330. No-Febril
  331. Nobedon
  332. Nodolex
  333. Noral
  334. Norcet
  335. Norco
  336. O-Acetaminophenol
  337. Oltyl
  338. Oralgan
  339. Oraphen-PD
  340. Ortensan
  341. Oxycet
  342. Oxycocet
  343. Oxycodone 2.5/Apap 500
  344. Oxycodone 5/Apap 500
  345. p-(Acetylamino)phenol
  346. p-Acetamidophenol
  347. p-Acetaminophenol
  348. p-Acetylaminophenol
  349. p-Hydroxyacetanilide
  350. p-Hydroxyphenolacetamide
  351. Paceco
  352. Pacemo
  353. Pacemol
  354. Pacet
  355. Pacimol
  356. Paedialgon
  357. Paedol
  358. Painex
  359. Paldesic
  360. Pamol
  361. Panacete
  362. Panadeine
  363. Panadeine Co
  364. Panadiene
  365. Panado-Co
  366. Panado-Co Caplets
  367. Panadol
  368. Panadol Extra Strength
  369. Panadol Junior Strength Caplets
  370. Panadol Maximum Strength Caplets
  371. Panadol Maximum Strength Tablets
  372. Panaleve
  373. Panamax
  374. Panasorb
  375. Panasorbe
  376. Panets
  377. Panex
  378. Panodil
  379. Panofen
  380. Pantalgin
  381. Papa-Deine #3
  382. Papa-Deine #4
  383. Para-Suppo
  384. Para-Tabs
  385. Paracemol
  386. Paracenol
  387. Paracet
  388. Paracetamol
  389. Paracetamol AL
  390. Paracetamol Antipanin P
  391. Paracetamol Basics
  392. Paracetamol BC
  393. Paracetamol DC
  394. Paracetamol Dr. Schmidgall
  395. Paracetamol Fecofar
  396. Paracetamol Genericon
  397. Paracetamol Hanseler
  398. Paracetamol Harkley
  399. Paracetamol Heumann
  400. Paracetamol Hexal
  401. Paracetamol Italfarmaco
  402. Paracetamol Nycomed
  403. Paracetamol PB
  404. Paracetamol Raffo
  405. Paracetamol Ratiopharm
  406. Paracetamol Rosch
  407. Paracetamol Saar
  408. Paracetamol SmithKline Beecham
  409. Paracetamol Stada
  410. Paracetamol von ct
  411. Paracetamol Winthrop
  412. Paracetamole
  413. Paracetamolo
  414. Paracetamolum
  415. Paracetanol
  416. Paracetol
  417. Paracin
  418. Paracod
  419. Paracodol
  420. Parador
  421. Paradrops
  422. Parakapton
  423. Parake
  424. Paralen
  425. Paralief
  426. Paralink
  427. Paralyoc
  428. Paramol
  429. Paramolan
  430. Paranox
  431. Parapan
  432. Parasedol
  433. Parasin
  434. Paraspen
  435. Parcetol
  436. Parelan
  437. Parmol
  438. Parogal
  439. Paroma
  440. Pasolind
  441. Pasolind N
  442. PCM Paracetamol Lichtenstein
  443. Pe-Tam
  444. Pediapirin
  445. Pediatrix
  446. Pedric
  447. Percocet
  448. Percocet-5
  449. Percocet-Demi
  450. Percogesic with Codeine
  451. Perdolan Mono
  452. Phenaphen
  453. Phenaphen Caplets
  454. Phenaphen W/Codeine
  455. Phendon
  456. Phenipirin
  457. Phogoglandin
  458. Phrenilin
  459. Phrenilin Forte
  460. Pinex
  461. Piramin
  462. Pirinasol
  463. Plicet
  464. Polmofen
  465. Predimol
  466. Predualito
  467. Prestwick_13
  468. Prodol
  469. Prompt
  470. Prontina
  471. Propacet
  472. Propacet 100
  473. Proval #3
  474. Puernol
  475. Pulmofen
  476. Pyregesic-C
  477. Pyrigesic
  478. Pyrinazine
  479. Pyromed
  480. Quiet World
  481. Redutemp
  482. Reliv
  483. Remedol
  484. Rhinex D-Lay Tablets
  485. Rivalgyl
  486. Robigesic
  487. Robitussin Night Relief
  488. Rockamol Plus
  489. Rounox
  490. Roxicet
  491. Roxicet 5/500
  492. Roxilox
  493. RubieMol
  494. Rubophen
  495. Rupemol
  496. Salzone
  497. Sanicet
  498. Sanicopyrine
  499. Scanol
  500. Scentalgyl
  501. Scherzatabletten Rezeptur 534
  502. Schmerzex
  503. Sedalito
  504. Sedapap
  505. Semolacin
  506. Servigesic
  507. Seskamol
  508. Setakop
  509. Setamol
  510. Setol
  511. Sifenol
  512. Sinaspril
  513. Sine-Off Sinus Medicine Caplets
  514. Sinedol
  515. Sinmol
  516. Sinubid
  517. SK-Apap
  518. Snaplets-FR
  519. Spalt fur die nacht
  520. Spalt N
  521. St Joseph Aspirin-Free
  522. St Joseph Aspirin-Free for Children
  523. St. Joseph Cold Tablets for Children
  524. St. Joseph Fever Reducer
  525. Stanback
  526. Stopain
  527. Sudafed Severe Cold Formula
  528. Sudafed Sinus
  529. Sunetheton
  530. Supac
  531. Supadol mono
  532. Supofen
  533. Suppap
  534. Suppap-120
  535. Suppap-325
  536. Suppap-650
  537. Supramol-M
  538. Synalgos-Dc-A
  539. Tabalgin
  540. Tachiprina
  541. Talacen
  542. Tapanol Extra Strength Caplets
  543. Tapanol Extra Strength Tablets
  544. Tapar
  545. Tavist Allergy/Sinus/Headache
  546. Tazamol
  547. Temlo
  548. Tempanal
  549. Tempra
  550. Tempra Caplets
  551. Tempra Chewable Tablets
  552. Tempra D.S
  553. Tempra Drops
  554. Tempra Syrup
  555. Tencon
  556. Termacet
  557. Termalgin
  558. Termalgine
  559. Termofren
  560. TheraFlu
  561. Tibinide
  562. Tibizide
  563. Tiffy
  564. Tisin
  565. Tisiodrazida
  566. Titralgan
  567. Tizide
  568. Tocris-1706
  569. Toximer P
  570. Tralgon
  571. Treupel mon
  572. Treupel N
  573. Treuphadol
  574. Triad
  575. Triaminic Sore Throat Formula
  576. Triaprin
  577. Tricoton
  578. Tussapap
  579. Tycolet
  580. TYL
  581. Tylenol
  582. Tylenol Allergy Sinus
  583. Tylenol Arthritis Extended Relief
  584. Tylenol Caplets
  585. Tylenol Children'S Chewable Tablets
  586. Tylenol Children'S Elixir
  587. Tylenol Children'S Suspension Liquid
  588. Tylenol Drops
  589. Tylenol Elixir
  590. Tylenol Extra Strength Adult Liquid Pain Reliever
  591. Tylenol Extra Strength Caplets
  592. Tylenol Extra Strength Gelcaps
  593. Tylenol Extra Strength Tablets
  594. Tylenol Gelcaps
  595. Tylenol Infants Drops
  596. Tylenol Infants" Suspension Drops
  597. Tylenol Junior Strength Caplets
  598. Tylenol Junior Strength Chewable Tablets
  599. Tylenol Regular Strength Caplets
  600. Tylenol Regular Strength Tablets
  601. Tylenol Tablets
  602. Tylex
  603. Tylex CD
  604. Tylol
  605. Tylox
  606. Tylox-325
  607. Tymol
  608. Ultracet
  609. Upsanol
  610. Utragin
  611. Valadol
  612. Valgesic
  613. Valorin
  614. Valorin Extra
  615. Vanquish
  616. Veralgina
  617. Vermidon
  618. Verpol
  619. Viclor Richet
  620. Vicodin
  621. Vicodin Es
  622. Vicodin Hp
  623. Vips
  624. Viruflu
  625. Vivimed
  626. Volpan
  627. Wygesic
  628. Zatinol
  629. Zolben
Chemical FormulaC8H9NO2
Average Molecular Weight151.1626
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight151.063328537
IUPAC NameN-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide
Traditional IUPAC Nameacetaminophen
CAS Registry Number103-90-2
SMILES
CC(=O)NC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H9NO2/c1-6(10)9-7-2-4-8(11)5-3-7/h2-5,11H,1H3,(H,9,10)
InChI KeyRZVAJINKPMORJF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
ClassAnilides
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Compounds
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • acetamides(ChEBI)
  • phenols(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Aminophenol Derivative
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Phenol
  • Phenol Derivative
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
Direct ParentAnilides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Drug metabolite
Biofunction
  • Enzyme cofactor
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility14 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP0.46SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility4.15 g/LALOGPS
logP0.51ALOGPS
logP0.91ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)9.46ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-4.4ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count2ChemAxon
polar surface area49.33ChemAxon
rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
refractivity42.9ChemAxon
polarizability15.53ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11 +/- 6 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified5.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified11.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified33.5 +/- 22.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00316
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00266
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022713
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1906
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAcetaminophen
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01859
Metagene LinkHMDB01859
METLIN ID6353
PubChem Compound1983
PDB IDTYL
ChEBI ID46195
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. de Morais SM, Uetrecht JP, Wells PG: Decreased glucuronidation and increased bioactivation of acetaminophen in Gilbert's syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1992 Feb;102(2):577-86. Pubmed: 1732127
  2. Muldrew KL, James LP, Coop L, McCullough SS, Hendrickson HP, Hinson JA, Mayeux PR: Determination of acetaminophen-protein adducts in mouse liver and serum and human serum after hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Apr;30(4):446-51. Pubmed: 11901099
  3. Bales JR, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance "maps" of acetaminophen metabolites in human urine. Clin Chem. 1985 May;31(5):757-62. Pubmed: 3987005
  4. van der Marel CD, Anderson BJ, Pluim MA, de Jong TH, Gonzalez A, Tibboel D: Acetaminophen in cerebrospinal fluid in children. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Aug;59(4):297-302. Epub 2003 Jul 4. Pubmed: 12845506
  5. Watari N, Iwai M, Kaneniwa N: Pharmacokinetic study of the fate of acetaminophen and its conjugates in rats. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1983 Jun;11(3):245-72. Pubmed: 6644552
  6. Kunkel A, Watzig H: Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography as a powerful tool for pharmacological investigations without sample pretreatment: a precise technique providing cost advantages and limits of detection to the low nanomolar range. Electrophoresis. 1999 Sep;20(12):2379-89. Pubmed: 10499329
  7. Vanbinst R, Koenig J, Di Fazio V, Hassoun A: Bile analysis of drugs in postmortem cases. Forensic Sci Int. 2002 Aug 14;128(1-2):35-40. Pubmed: 12208019
  8. Quattrone AJ, Putnam RS: A single liquid-chromatographic procedure for therapeutic monitoring of theophylline, acetaminophen, or ethosuximide. Clin Chem. 1981 Jan;27(1):129-32. Pubmed: 7004665
  9. Smilgin Z, Drozdzik M, Gawronska-Szklarz B, Wojcicki J, Tustanowski S, Gornik W: [Pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in individuals occupationally exposed to polyvinyl chloride modified with plasticizers] Med Pr. 1993;44(5):423-9. Pubmed: 8107555
  10. Griener JC, Msall ME, Cooke RE, Corcoran GB: Noninvasive determination of acetaminophen disposition in Down's syndrome. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990 Nov;48(5):520-8. Pubmed: 2146059
  11. Mohammadi M, Mohebbi MR, Naderi F: CSF Glucose Concentrations in Infants with Febrile Convulsions and the Possible Effect of Acetaminophen. Indian Pediatr. 2003 Dec;40(12):1183-6. Pubmed: 14722369
  12. Munsterhjelm E, Munsterhjelm NM, Niemi TT, Ylikorkala O, Neuvonen PJ, Rosenberg PH: Dose-dependent inhibition of platelet function by acetaminophen in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology. 2005 Oct;103(4):712-7. Pubmed: 16192763
  13. Findlay JW, DeAngelis RL, Kearney MF, Welch RM, Findlay JM: Analgesic drugs in breast milk and plasma. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 May;29(5):625-33. Pubmed: 7214793
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Enzymes

Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177