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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-18 09:17:15 UTC
Update Date2014-09-23 05:27:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01943
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePseudoephedrine
DescriptionPseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. The salts pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations either as single ingredient preparations, or more commonly in combination with antihistamines, paracetamol and/or ibuprofen. Consumers often refer to it by a product which contains pseudoephedrine, such as Sudafed, the trademark for a common brand of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in North America; Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine, and an isomer of ephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of the (1S,2S)- diastereomer of ephedrine (which has 1R,2S- configuration). Other names are (+)-pseudoephedrine and D-pseudoephedrine. (Reynolds, 1989) (-)-(1R,2R)-Pseudoephedrine is not used clinically, since it is associated with greater central nervous system (CNS) stimulatory effects. (+)-(1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine is a less-potent CNS stimulant, yet it retains its efficacy as a decongestant. -- Wikipedia; Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine - that is, its principal mechanism of action relies on its indirect action on the adrenergic receptor system. While it may have weak agonist activity at adrenergic receptors, the principal mechanism is to displace noradrenaline from storage vesicles in presynaptic neurons. The displaced noradrenaline is released into the neuronal synapse where it is free to activate the aforementioned postsynaptic adrenergic receptors. -- Wikipedia; Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine, and an isomer of ephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of the (1S,2S)- diastereomer of ephedrine (which has 1R,2S- configuration). Other names are (+)-pseudoephedrine and D-pseudoephedrine (Reynolds, 1989). The enantiomer (-)-(1R,2R)-Pseudoephedrine has fewer side-effects, fewer central nervous system (CNS) stimulatory effects, does not reduce to d-methamphetamine, yet retains its efficacy as a decongestant.[citation needed] However, the patent holder for (-)-Pseudoephedrine (Pfizer/Warner-Lambert) has not yet sought or received government approval for its sale to the public.(US Patent 6,495,529); Treatment for urinary incontinence is an unlabeled use for these medications. Unlabeled use means doctors can use the medication to treat a condition other than that for which it was first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These medications are approved by the FDA for the treatment of nasal congestion caused by colds or allergies. However it has also been succesful in treating stress incontinence by increasing the pressure (tension) exerted by the muscles of the bladder neck and the urethra, which helps retain the urine within the bladder; An alpha and beta adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists; Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. The salts pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations either as single-ingredient preparations, or more commonly in combination with antihistamines, paracetamol and/or ibuprofen. It is often referred to by consumers as Sudafed, which is the trademark for a common brand of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. -- Wikipedia; Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine - that is, its principal mechanism of action relies on its indirect action on the adrenergic receptor system. While it may have weak agonist activity at alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, the principal mechanism is to displace noradrenaline from storage vesicles in presynaptic neurons. The displaced noradrenaline is released into the neuronal synapse where it is free to activate the aforementioned postsynaptic adrenergic receptors.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (+)-(1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine
  2. (+)-Pseudoephedrine
  3. (+)-psi-Ephedrine
  4. (+)-threo-Ephedrine
  5. (1S,2S)-(+)-Pseudoephedrine
  6. (1S,2S)-Pseudoephedrine
  7. 1-Ephedrine
  8. 2-(Methylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol
  9. Besan
  10. D-Isoephedrine
  11. D-Pseudoephedrine
  12. D-Pseudoephedrine base
  13. D-Psi-2-Methylamino-1-phenyl-1-propanol
  14. D-Psi-Ephedrine
  15. Isoephedrine
  16. L(+)-Psi-Ephedrine
  17. L-(+)-Pseudoephedrine
  18. Novafed
  19. Pseudoefedrina
  20. Pseudoephedrine
  21. Pseudoephedrine D-form
  22. Pseudoephedrine Ephedrine
  23. Pseudoephedrinum
  24. Psi-ephedrin
  25. Sudafed
  26. trans-Ephedrine
Chemical FormulaC10H15NO
Average Molecular Weight165.2322
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight165.115364107
IUPAC Name(1S,2S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
Traditional Namepseudoephedrine
CAS Registry Number90-82-4
SMILES
CN[C@@H](C)[C@@H](O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H15NO/c1-8(11-2)10(12)9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-8,10-12H,1-2H3/t8-,10+/m0/s1
InChI KeyKWGRBVOPPLSCSI-WCBMZHEXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
ClassPhenethylamines
Sub ClassAmphetamines and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Alkaloids(KEGG)
  • Organic Compounds
  • Phenylalanine derived alkaloids(KEGG)
  • phenethylamine alkaloid(ChEBI)
  • phenylethanolamines(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Aminoalcohol
  • Benzyl Alcohol Derivative
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Aliphatic Amine (Dialkylamine)
Direct ParentAmphetamines and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point119 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP0.89KRIL,MB & FUNG,HL (1990)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility8.26ALOGPS
logP1ALOGPS
logP1.32ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.83 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.02 (0.012-6.05) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022758
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6761
KEGG Compound IDC02765
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPseudoephedrine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01943
Metagene LinkHMDB01943
METLIN ID2189
PubChem Compound7028
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID51209
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular weight:
48956.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular weight:
46458.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0