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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:30 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:33:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01989
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTungsten
DescriptionTungsten is a transition metal found, along with chromium, molybdenum and seaborgium, in Group VI of the Periodic Table of elements. Since its discovery in the last quarter of 18th century, tungsten-based products have been in use in a wide range of applications stretching from daily household necessities to highly specialized components of modern science and technology. As new applications and uses are discovered continuously, interest on and demand for tungsten, already an essential commodity, are projected to increase steadily in the years to come. Unavoidably, as is the case with other natural materials and/or non-renewable resources, increased demand and use of tungsten will spawn (a) increased interactions with other materials and/or non-sustainable practices, (b) a greater number of possible entry points into the natural and human environment and (c) a higher probability of deliberate or accidental releases. Currently, the existing knowledge base does not provide clear information about the behavior of tungsten-based products in the environment. The toxicological profile of tungsten, including possible effects on living organisms and exposure pathways, remains rather sketchy, narrow and fragmentary. Regulation of tungsten, both in terms of environmental and occupational safety and health, is at present limited in comparison with other metals. This pattern of environmental obscurity has been unequivocally disrupted by the events of Fallon, Nevada and the possible implication of tungsten to an acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cluster. Tungsten is now the focus of scrutiny as it currently occupies the top of 'to do' lists of various regulatory, health and environmental agencies. The occurrence of a childhood leukemia cluster in Fallon, Nevada prompted a wide investigation that involved several local, state and federal agencies led by the Centers of Disease Control (CDC). In essence, the objective of this investigation was to assess whether environmental causes were responsible for the cluster. The 16 reported leukemia cases within the time frame of 1997-2001, were well above the average for Nevada (3.0 cases/100,000 children/5 years). Several possible causes were proposed, such as jet fuel (JP-8) from a nearby military base or from a JP-8 pipeline running through the city, high levels of arsenic and other metals in the drinking water supplies, industrial pollution from a local tungsten smelting facility, and agrochemical contamination resulting from agricultural pesticide/fungicide use. Although the exact causes of leukemia are not well known, genetic and/or environmental factors may trigger the disease including ionizing and electromagnetic radiation, infectious and chemical agents. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body.(PMID: 16343746 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Tungsten ion
  2. Tunsten
  3. Wolfram
  4. Wolframium
Chemical FormulaW
Average Molecular Weight183.84
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight183.950932553
IUPAC Nametungsten(4+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Nametungsten(4+)
CAS Registry Number7440-33-7
SMILES
[W+4]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/W/q+4
InChI KeyYFGRPIXHCIXTLM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • monoatomic tetracation(ChEBI)
  • tungsten cation(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
Biofunction
  • Non-essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point3410 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00016 +/- 0.00011 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000054 (0.0-0.001) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00039 +/- 0.00016 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<0.008 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0060 (0.0011-0.0280) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.01 +/- 0.022 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00016 +/- 0.00011 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
Alzheimer's disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000163 +/- 0.000109 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00038 +/- 0.00022 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.034 (0.0108-0.078) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Occluded vessels
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00033 +/- 0.00016 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
Alzheimer's disease
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Vessel occlusion
  1. Peuster M, Fink C, von Schnakenburg C, Hausdorf G: Dissolution of tungsten coils does not produce systemic toxicity, but leads to elevated levels of tungsten in the serum and recanalization of the previously occluded vessel. Cardiol Young. 2002 May;12(3):229-35. Pubmed: 12365168
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003790
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID11524983
KEGG Compound IDC00753
BioCyc IDW%2b6
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTungsten
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01989
Metagene LinkHMDB01989
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30517
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schroder K, Vecchione C, Jung O, Schreiber JG, Shiri-Sverdlov R, van Gorp PJ, Busse R, Brandes RP: Xanthine oxidase inhibitor tungsten prevents the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice fed a Western-type diet. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Nov 1;41(9):1353-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4. Pubmed: 17023262
  2. Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK, Sharrett R, Calderon-Aranda E, Selvin E, Guallar E: Metals in urine and peripheral arterial disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Feb;113(2):164-9. Pubmed: 15687053
  3. Nagareddy PR, Vasudevan H, McNeill JH: Oral administration of sodium tungstate improves cardiac performance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 May;83(5):405-11. Pubmed: 15897922
  4. Koutsospyros A, Braida W, Christodoulatos C, Dermatas D, Strigul N: A review of tungsten: from environmental obscurity to scrutiny. J Hazard Mater. 2006 Aug 10;136(1):1-19. Epub 2005 Dec 15. Pubmed: 16343746

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Microtubule-associated protein involved in membrane protein-cytoskeleton interactions. It is thought to anchor the inhibitory glycine receptor (GLYR) to subsynaptic microtubules (By similarity). Catalyzes two steps in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. In the first step, molybdopterin is adenylated. Subsequently, molybdate is inserted into adenylated molybdopterin and AMP is released.
Gene Name:
GPHN
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQX3
Molecular weight:
79747.635