|Creation Date||2006-05-22 14:17:30 UTC|
|Update Date||2013-05-29 19:33:13 UTC|
|Secondary Accession Numbers||None|
|Description||Tungsten is a transition metal found, along with chromium, molybdenum and seaborgium, in Group VI of the Periodic Table of elements. Since its discovery in the last quarter of 18th century, tungsten-based products have been in use in a wide range of applications stretching from daily household necessities to highly specialized components of modern science and technology. As new applications and uses are discovered continuously, interest on and demand for tungsten, already an essential commodity, are projected to increase steadily in the years to come. Unavoidably, as is the case with other natural materials and/or non-renewable resources, increased demand and use of tungsten will spawn (a) increased interactions with other materials and/or non-sustainable practices, (b) a greater number of possible entry points into the natural and human environment and (c) a higher probability of deliberate or accidental releases. Currently, the existing knowledge base does not provide clear information about the behavior of tungsten-based products in the environment. The toxicological profile of tungsten, including possible effects on living organisms and exposure pathways, remains rather sketchy, narrow and fragmentary. Regulation of tungsten, both in terms of environmental and occupational safety and health, is at present limited in comparison with other metals. This pattern of environmental obscurity has been unequivocally disrupted by the events of Fallon, Nevada and the possible implication of tungsten to an acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cluster. Tungsten is now the focus of scrutiny as it currently occupies the top of 'to do' lists of various regulatory, health and environmental agencies. The occurrence of a childhood leukemia cluster in Fallon, Nevada prompted a wide investigation that involved several local, state and federal agencies led by the Centers of Disease Control (CDC). In essence, the objective of this investigation was to assess whether environmental causes were responsible for the cluster. The 16 reported leukemia cases within the time frame of 1997-2001, were well above the average for Nevada (3.0 cases/100,000 children/5 years). Several possible causes were proposed, such as jet fuel (JP-8) from a nearby military base or from a JP-8 pipeline running through the city, high levels of arsenic and other metals in the drinking water supplies, industrial pollution from a local tungsten smelting facility, and agrochemical contamination resulting from agricultural pesticide/fungicide use. Although the exact causes of leukemia are not well known, genetic and/or environmental factors may trigger the disease including ionizing and electromagnetic radiation, infectious and chemical agents. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body.(PMID: 16343746 ).|
- Tungsten ion
|Average Molecular Weight||183.84|
|Monoisotopic Molecular Weight||183.950932553|
|IUPAC Name||tungsten(4+) ion|
|Traditional IUPAC Name||tungsten(4+)|
|CAS Registry Number||7440-33-7|
|Super Class||Homogeneous Metal Compounds|
|Class||Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds|
- monoatomic tetracation(ChEBI)
- tungsten cation(ChEBI)
|Direct Parent||Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds|
|Status||Detected and Quantified|
|Cellular locations||Not Available|
|Melting Point||3410 °C||Not Available|
|Boiling Point||Not Available||Not Available|
|Water Solubility||Not Available||Not Available|
|LogP||Not Available||Not Available|
|Cellular Locations||Not Available|
- Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
|Tissue Location||Not Available|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.00016 +/- 0.00011 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Normal|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.000054 (0.0-0.001) uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Normal|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.00039 +/- 0.00016 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Normal|
|Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)||Detected and Quantified||<0.008 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Normal|
|Urine||Detected and Quantified||0.0060 (0.0011-0.0280) umol/mmol creatinine||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Normal|
|Urine||Detected and Quantified||0.01 +/- 0.022 umol/mmol creatinine||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Normal|
- Geigy Scient...
- West Cadwell...
- Basel, Switz...
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.00016 +/- 0.00011 uM||Elderly (>65 years old)||Both||Alzheimer's disease|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.000163 +/- 0.000109 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Parkinson's disease|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.00038 +/- 0.00022 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Multiple sclerosis|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.034 (0.0108-0.078) uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Occluded vessels|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.00033 +/- 0.00016 uM||Elderly (>65 years old)||Both||Alzheimer's disease|
|Associated Disorders and Diseases|
- Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203.
- Peuster M, Fink C, von Schnakenburg C, Hausdorf G: Dissolution of tungsten coils does not produce systemic toxicity, but leads to elevated levels of tungsten in the serum and recanalization of the previously occluded vessel. Cardiol Young. 2002 May;12(3):229-35.
- Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6.
- Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95.
|Associated OMIM IDs|
|DrugBank ID||Not Available|
|DrugBank Metabolite ID||Not Available|
|Phenol Explorer Compound ID||Not Available|
|Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID||Not Available|
|FoodDB ID||FDB003790 |
|KNApSAcK ID||Not Available|
|Chemspider ID||11524983 |
|KEGG Compound ID||C00753 |
|BioCyc ID||W%2b6 |
|BiGG ID||Not Available|
|Wikipedia Link||Tungsten |
|NuGOwiki Link||HMDB01989 |
|Metagene Link||HMDB01989 |
|METLIN ID||Not Available|
|PubChem Compound||Not Available|
|PDB ID||Not Available|
|ChEBI ID||30517 |
|Synthesis Reference||Not Available|
|Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)||Not Available|
- Schroder K, Vecchione C, Jung O, Schreiber JG, Shiri-Sverdlov R, van Gorp PJ, Busse R, Brandes RP: Xanthine oxidase inhibitor tungsten prevents the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice fed a Western-type diet. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Nov 1;41(9):1353-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4.
- Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK, Sharrett R, Calderon-Aranda E, Selvin E, Guallar E: Metals in urine and peripheral arterial disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Feb;113(2):164-9.
- Nagareddy PR, Vasudevan H, McNeill JH: Oral administration of sodium tungstate improves cardiac performance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 May;83(5):405-11.
- Koutsospyros A, Braida W, Christodoulatos C, Dermatas D, Strigul N: A review of tungsten: from environmental obscurity to scrutiny. J Hazard Mater. 2006 Aug 10;136(1):1-19. Epub 2005 Dec 15.