Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Tungsten (HMDB01989)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-05-22 08:17:30 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:33:13 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Tungsten
Description Tungsten is a transition metal found, along with chromium, molybdenum and seaborgium, in Group VI of the Periodic Table of elements. Since its discovery in the last quarter of 18th century, tungsten-based products have been in use in a wide range of applications stretching from daily household necessities to highly specialized components of modern science and technology. As new applications and uses are discovered continuously, interest on and demand for tungsten, already an essential commodity, are projected to increase steadily in the years to come. Unavoidably, as is the case with other natural materials and/or non-renewable resources, increased demand and use of tungsten will spawn (a) increased interactions with other materials and/or non-sustainable practices, (b) a greater number of possible entry points into the natural and human environment and (c) a higher probability of deliberate or accidental releases. Currently, the existing knowledge base does not provide clear information about the behavior of tungsten-based products in the environment. The toxicological profile of tungsten, including possible effects on living organisms and exposure pathways, remains rather sketchy, narrow and fragmentary. Regulation of tungsten, both in terms of environmental and occupational safety and health, is at present limited in comparison with other metals. This pattern of environmental obscurity has been unequivocally disrupted by the events of Fallon, Nevada and the possible implication of tungsten to an acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cluster. Tungsten is now the focus of scrutiny as it currently occupies the top of 'to do' lists of various regulatory, health and environmental agencies. The occurrence of a childhood leukemia cluster in Fallon, Nevada prompted a wide investigation that involved several local, state and federal agencies led by the Centers of Disease Control (CDC). In essence, the objective of this investigation was to assess whether environmental causes were responsible for the cluster. The 16 reported leukemia cases within the time frame of 1997-2001, were well above the average for Nevada (3.0 cases/100,000 children/5 years). Several possible causes were proposed, such as jet fuel (JP-8) from a nearby military base or from a JP-8 pipeline running through the city, high levels of arsenic and other metals in the drinking water supplies, industrial pollution from a local tungsten smelting facility, and agrochemical contamination resulting from agricultural pesticide/fungicide use. Although the exact causes of leukemia are not well known, genetic and/or environmental factors may trigger the disease including ionizing and electromagnetic radiation, infectious and chemical agents. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body.(PMID: 16343746 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
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Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
  1. Tungsten ion
  2. Tunsten
  3. Wolfram
  4. Wolframium
Chemical Formula W
Average Molecular Weight 183.84
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 183.950932553
IUPAC Name tungsten(4+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name tungsten(4+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-33-7
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/W/q+4
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • monoatomic tetracation(ChEBI)
  • tungsten cation(ChEBI)
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin Not Available
  • Non-essential minerals
Application Not Available
Cellular locations Not Available
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 3410 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 4 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 4 ChemAxon
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.00016 +/- 0.00011 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.000054 (0.0-0.001) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.00039 +/- 0.00016 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
<0.008 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0060 (0.0011-0.0280) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.01 +/- 0.022 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.00016 +/- 0.00011 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Comment Alzheimer's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.000163 +/- 0.000109 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.00038 +/- 0.00022 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.034 (0.0108-0.078) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Occluded vessels
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.00033 +/- 0.00016 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Comment Alzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Vessel occlusion
  • Peuster M, Fink C, von Schnakenburg C, Hausdorf G: Dissolution of tungsten coils does not produce systemic toxicity, but leads to elevated levels of tungsten in the serum and recanalization of the previously occluded vessel. Cardiol Young. 2002 May;12(3):229-35. Pubmed: 12365168 Link_out
      Alzheimer's disease
      • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
          Multiple sclerosis
          • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
              Parkinson's disease
              • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
                  Associated OMIM IDs
                  DrugBank ID Not Available
                  DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                  FoodDB ID FDB003790
                  KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                  Chemspider ID 11524983 Link_out
                  KEGG Compound ID C00753 Link_out
                  BioCyc ID W%2b6 Link_out
                  BiGG ID Not Available
                  Wikipedia Link Tungsten Link_out
                  NuGOwiki Link HMDB01989 Link_out
                  Metagene Link HMDB01989 Link_out
                  METLIN ID Not Available
                  PubChem Compound Not Available
                  PDB ID Not Available
                  ChEBI ID 30517 Link_out
                  Synthesis Reference Not Available
                  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                  General References
                  1. Schroder K, Vecchione C, Jung O, Schreiber JG, Shiri-Sverdlov R, van Gorp PJ, Busse R, Brandes RP: Xanthine oxidase inhibitor tungsten prevents the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice fed a Western-type diet. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Nov 1;41(9):1353-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4. Pubmed: 17023262 Link_out
                  2. Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK, Sharrett R, Calderon-Aranda E, Selvin E, Guallar E: Metals in urine and peripheral arterial disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Feb;113(2):164-9. Pubmed: 15687053 Link_out
                  3. Nagareddy PR, Vasudevan H, McNeill JH: Oral administration of sodium tungstate improves cardiac performance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 May;83(5):405-11. Pubmed: 15897922 Link_out
                  4. Koutsospyros A, Braida W, Christodoulatos C, Dermatas D, Strigul N: A review of tungsten: from environmental obscurity to scrutiny. J Hazard Mater. 2006 Aug 10;136(1):1-19. Epub 2005 Dec 15. Pubmed: 16343746 Link_out

                  Name: Gephyrin
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: GPHN
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NQX3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA