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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-12 19:07:11 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:06:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03339
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Glutamic acid
DescriptionThere are two forms of glutamic acid found in nature: L-glutamic acid and D-glutamic acid. D-glutamic acid, is not endogenously produced in higher mammals. It is found naturally primarily in the cell walls of certain bacteria. D-glutamate is also present in certain foods e.g., soybeans and also arises from the turnover of the intestinal tract microflora, whose cell walls contain significant D-glutamate. Unlike other D-amino acids, D-glutamate is not oxidized by the D-amino acid oxidases, and therefore this detoxification pathway is not available for handling D-glutamate. Likewise, D-glutamic acid, when ingested, largely escapes most deamination reactions (unlike the L-counterpart). Free D-glutamate is found in mammalian tissue at surprisingly high levels, with D-glutamate accounting for 9% of the total glutamate present in liver. D-glutamate is the most potent natural inhibitor of glutathione synthesis identified to date and this may account for its localization to the liver, since circulating D-glutamate may alter redox stabiity (PMID 11158923 ). Certain eels are known to use D-glutamic acid as a phermone for chemical communication.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(R)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidChEBI
D-2-Aminoglutaric acidChEBI
D-Glutaminic acidChEBI
D-GlutaminsaeureChEBI
Glutamic acid D-formChEBI
(R)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
(2R)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
D-2-AminoglutarateGenerator
D-GlutaminateGenerator
Glutamate D-formGenerator
D-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
D-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
D-GlutamateHMDB
delta-2-AminoglutarateHMDB
delta-2-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
delta-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
delta-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
delta-GlutamateHMDB
delta-Glutamic acidHMDB
delta-GlutaminateHMDB
delta-Glutaminic acidHMDB
delta-GlutaminsaeureHMDB
DGLHMDB
GlutamateHMDB
Lopac-g-2128HMDB
Lopac-gamma-2128HMDB
R-(-)-GlutamateHMDB
R-(-)-Glutamic acidHMDB
Tocris-0217HMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional NameD-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number6893-26-1
SMILES
N[C@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-GSVOUGTGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as d-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the D-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentD-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Microbial
Biofunction
  • Protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point201 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.88 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-3900000000-58248bb2a0c7ddc905cfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0zgi-9600000000-076b628a6858a60a475fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-bd3823a5fab8a2d9b62cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-11233b5887638266e512View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0fba-4900000000-1e8ea62e3fbd8467396fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0abc-9100000000-6c956e122b59de69a472View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified1600 +/- 320 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified67.51 +/- 75.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified43.4 +/- 55.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.91 +/- 3.90 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified13.5 +/- 8.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.5 +/- 19.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.5 +/- 6.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.9 +/- 7.60 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified123.84 +/- 110.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.9 +/- 3.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.5 (3.3-18.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified82.0 +/- 8.0 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Premature
details
BloodDetected and Quantified156.0 +/- 90.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn’s Disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified38.26 +/- 29.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified43.79 +/- 10.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified47.82 +/- 18.36 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Schizophrenia
  1. Heresco-Levy U, Bar G, Levin R, Ermilov M, Ebstein RP, Javitt DC: High glycine levels are associated with prepulse inhibition deficits in chronic schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res. 2007 Mar;91(1-3):14-21. Epub 2007 Feb 2. [17276036 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023148
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID21814
KEGG Compound IDC00217
BioCyc IDGAMMA-GLUTAMYL-D-GLUTAMATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDGL
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03339
Metagene LinkHMDB03339
METLIN ID6895
PubChem Compound23327
PDB IDDGL
ChEBI ID15966
References
Synthesis ReferenceOzaki, Akio; Yagasaki, Makoto; Takada, Hideyoshi; Hashimoto, Yukio. Manufacture of D-glutamic acid with Lactobacillus. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1990), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Emi M, Wilson DE, Iverius PH, Wu L, Hata A, Hegele R, Williams RR, Lalouel JM: Missense mutation (Gly----Glu188) of human lipoprotein lipase imparting functional deficiency. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 5;265(10):5910-6. [1969408 ]
  2. Persson H, Pelto-Huikko M, Metsis M, Soder O, Brene S, Skog S, Hokfelt T, Ritzen EM: Expression of the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in male germ cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4701-11. [1697032 ]
  3. Ahlman B, Andersson K, Leijonmarck CE, Ljungqvist O, Hedenborg L, Wernerman J: Short-term starvation alters the free amino acid content of the human intestinal mucosa. Clin Sci (Lond). 1994 Jun;86(6):653-62. [7914846 ]
  4. Wang M, Meng Z, Fu J: Synthesis and biodistribution of six novel 99mTc complexes of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-amino acid Schiff bases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006 Feb;64(2):235-40. [16309915 ]
  5. Majid SM, Liss AS, You M, Bose HR: The suppression of SH3BGRL is important for v-Rel-mediated transformation. Oncogene. 2006 Feb 2;25(5):756-68. [16186799 ]
  6. Canal N, Nemni R: Autoimmunity and diabetic neuropathy. Clin Neurosci. 1997;4(6):371-3. [9358982 ]
  7. Danke NA, Koelle DM, Yee C, Beheray S, Kwok WW: Autoreactive T cells in healthy individuals. J Immunol. 2004 May 15;172(10):5967-72. [15128778 ]
  8. Guariso G, Brotto F, Basso D, Alaggio R, Betterle C: Organ-specific autoantibodies in children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter. 2004 Dec;9(6):622-8. [15610075 ]
  9. Nagai A, Suzuki Y, Baek SY, Lee KS, Lee MC, McLarnon JG, Kim SU: Generation and characterization of human hybrid neurons produced between embryonic CNS neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Neurobiol Dis. 2002 Oct;11(1):184-98. [12460557 ]
  10. Mally MI, Cirulli V, Hayek A, Otonkoski T: ICA69 is expressed equally in the human endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Diabetologia. 1996 Apr;39(4):474-80. [8777998 ]
  11. Maechler P, Gjinovci A, Wollheim CB: Implication of glutamate in the kinetics of insulin secretion in rat and mouse perfused pancreas. Diabetes. 2002 Feb;51 Suppl 1:S99-102. [11815466 ]
  12. Nielsen C, Hansen D, Husby S, Jacobsen BB, Lillevang ST: No allelic variation in genes with high gliadin homology in patients with celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. Immunogenetics. 2004 Aug;56(5):375-8. Epub 2004 Aug 7. [15309343 ]
  13. Luo J, Kaplitt MG, Fitzsimons HL, Zuzga DS, Liu Y, Oshinsky ML, During MJ: Subthalamic GAD gene therapy in a Parkinson's disease rat model. Science. 2002 Oct 11;298(5592):425-9. [12376704 ]
  14. Meyer W, Poehling HM, Neurand K: Intraepidermal distribution of free amino acids in porcine skin. J Dermatol Sci. 1991 Sep;2(5):383-92. [1742249 ]
  15. Cuervo JH, Rodriguez B, Houghten RA: The Magainins: sequence factors relevant to increased antimicrobial activity and decreased hemolytic activity. Pept Res. 1988 Nov-Dec;1(2):81-6. [2980783 ]
  16. Roll U, Scheeser J, Standl E, Ziegler AG: Alterations of lymphocyte subsets in children of diabetic mothers. Diabetologia. 1994 Nov;37(11):1132-41. [7867885 ]
  17. Bill JR, Mack DG, Falta MT, Maier LA, Sullivan AK, Joslin FG, Martin AK, Freed BM, Kotzin BL, Fontenot AP: Beryllium presentation to CD4+ T cells is dependent on a single amino acid residue of the MHC class II beta-chain. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15;175(10):7029-37. [16272364 ]
  18. Raj D, Langford M, Krueger S, Shelton M, Welbourne T: Regulatory responses to an oral D-glutamate load: formation of D-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Feb;280(2):E214-20. [11158923 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
Gene Name:
GLS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI32
Molecular weight:
66322.225
Reactions
D-Glutamine + Water → D-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
GLS
Uniprot ID:
O94925
Molecular weight:
65459.525
Reactions
D-Glutamine + Water → D-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails