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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-10-17 08:44:13 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:07:01 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05016
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameVenlafaxine
DescriptionVenlafaxine (brand name: Effexor or Efexor) is an effective antidepressant for many persons; Venlafaxine is a bicyclic antidepressant, and is usually categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), but it has been referred to as a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It works by blocking the transporter reuptake proteins for key neurotransmitters affecting mood, thereby leaving more active neurotransmitter in the synapse. The neurotransmitters affected are serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Additionally, in high doses it weakly inhibits the reuptake of dopamine; A comparison of adverse event rates in a fixed dose study comparing venlafaxine 75, 225, and 375 mg/day with placebo revealed a dose dependency for some of the more common adverse events associated with venlafaxine use. The rule for including events was to enumerate those that occurred at an incidence of 5% or more for at least one of the venlafaxine groups and for which the incidence was at least twice the placebo incidence for at least one venlafaxine group. Tests for potential dose relationships for these events (Cochran-Armitage Test, with a criterion of exact 2-sided p-value <= 0.05) suggested a dose-dependency for several adverse events in this list, including chills, hypertension, anorexia, nausea, agitation, dizziness, somnolence, tremor, yawning, sweating, and abnormal ejaculation.[Wyeth Monograph]; Venlafaxine is an effective anti-depressant for many persons; however, it seems to be especially effective for those with treatment resistant depression. Some of these persons have taken two or more antidepressants prior to venlafaxine with no relief. Patients suffering with severe long-term depression typically respond better to venlafaxine than other drugs. However, venlafaxine has been reported to be more difficult to discontinue than other antidepressants. In addition, a September 2004 Consumer Reports study ranked venlafaxine as the most effective among six commonly prescribed antidepressants. However, this should not be considered a definitive finding, since responses to psychiatric medications can vary significantly from individual to individual; however, it seems to be especially effective for those with treatment-resistant depression. Some of these persons have taken two or more antidepressants prior to venlafaxine with no relief. Patients suffering with severe long term depression typically respond better to venlafaxine than other drugs. However, venlafaxine has been reported to be more difficult to discontinue than other antidepressants. In addition, a September 2004 Consumer Reports study ranked venlafaxine as the most effective among six commonly prescribed antidepressants. However, this should not be considered a definitive finding, since responses to psychiatric medications can vary significantly from individual to individual; Venlafaxine hydrochloride is a prescription antidepressant that belongs to the class of antidepressants called serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). A Black Box Warning has been issued with Venlafaxine and with other SSRI and SNRI anti-depressants advising of risk of suicide. There is an additional risk if a physician misinterprets patient expression of adverse effects such as panic or akithesia. Careful assessment of patient history and comorbid risk factors such as drug abuse are essential in evaluating the safety of Venlafaxine for individual patients. Another risk is Serotonin syndrome. This is a serious effect that can be caused by interactions with other drugs and is potentially fatal. This risk necessitates clear information to patients and proper medical history. Venlafaxine is used primarily for the treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder in adults. It is also used for other general depressive disorders. Although it is not approved for use in children or adolescents, there is a considerable information by Wyeth on cautions if presecribed to this age group. Venlafaxine hydrochloride is a prescription antidepressant first introduced by Wyeth in 1993. It belongs to class of antidepressants called serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). As of August 2006, generic venlafaxine is available in the United States.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
ElafaxChEBI
VenlafaxinaChEBI
VenlafaxinumChEBI
EfectinHMDB
EfexorHMDB
EffexorHMDB
TrevilorHMDB
VenlafaxinHMDB
VenlafexineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC17H27NO2
Average Molecular Weight277.4018
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight277.204179113
IUPAC Name1-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]cyclohexan-1-ol
Traditional Namevenlafaxine
CAS Registry Number93413-69-5
SMILES
COC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(CN(C)C)C1(O)CCCCC1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C17H27NO2/c1-18(2)13-16(17(19)11-5-4-6-12-17)14-7-9-15(20-3)10-8-14/h7-10,16,19H,4-6,11-13H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=PNVNVHUZROJLTJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropylamines. These are compounds containing a phenylpropylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the third carbon by an propan-1-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylpropylamines
Direct ParentPhenylpropylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpropylamine
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • 1,3-aminoalcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point74 - 76 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.23 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.69ALOGPS
logP2.74ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity83.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Venlafaxine Metabolism PathwaySMP00636Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.0 (0.02-4.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023588
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5454
KEGG Compound IDC07187
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkVenlafaxine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05016
Metagene LinkHMDB05016
METLIN ID3005
PubChem Compound5656
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9943
References
Synthesis ReferenceHusbands, George Edward Morris; Yardley, John Patrick; Muth, Eric Anthony. Phenethylamine derivatives and intermediates. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1984), 58 pp. CODEN: EPXXDW EP 112669 A2 19840704 CAN 102:5895 AN 1985:5895
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Fogelman SM, Schmider J, Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Harmatz JS, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ: O- and N-demethylation of venlafaxine in vitro by human liver microsomes and by microsomes from cDNA-transfected cells: effect of metabolic inhibitors and SSRI antidepressants. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999 May;20(5):480-90. [10192828 ]
  2. Saletu B, Grunberger J, Anderer P, Linzmayer L, Semlitsch HV, Magni G: Pharmacodynamics of venlafaxine evaluated by EEG brain mapping, psychometry and psychophysiology. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Jun;33(6):589-601. [1389931 ]
  3. Degner D, Grohmann R, Kropp S, Ruther E, Bender S, Engel RR, Schmidt LG: Severe adverse drug reactions of antidepressants: results of the German multicenter drug surveillance program AMSP. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004 Mar;37 Suppl 1:S39-45. [15052513 ]
  4. Invernizzi RW, Garattini S: Role of presynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors in antidepressant action: recent findings from microdialysis studies. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;28(5):819-27. [15363606 ]
  5. Wikell C, Eap CB, Josefsson M, Apelqvist G, Ahlner J, Baumann P, Bengtsson F: Disposition of venlafaxine enantiomers in rats with hepatic encephalopathy after chronic drug treatment. Chirality. 2002 May 5;14(4):347-50. [11968077 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular weight:
43567.5
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular weight:
46106.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6

Transporters

General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165