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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-10-17 11:44:46 UTC
Update Date2014-09-23 05:26:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05041
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDonepezil
DescriptionDonepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept (Eisai), is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. Its main therapeutic use is in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease where it is used to increase cortical acetylcholine. It has an oral bioavailability of 100% and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Because it has a half life of about 70 hours, it can be taken once a day. Initial dose is 5 mg per day, which can be increased to 10 mg per day after an adjustment period of at least 4 weeks. Donepezil is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. Its main therapeutic use is in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease where it is used to increase cortical acetylcholine. It is well absorbed in the gut with an oral bioavailability of 100% and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Because it has a half life of about 70 hours, it can be taken once a day. Currently, there is no definitive proof that use of donepezil or other similar agents alters the course or progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, 6-12 month controlled studies have shown modest benefits in cognition and/or behavior. Pilot studies have reported that donepezil therapy may potentially have effects on markers of disease progression, such as hippocampal volume. Therefore, many neurologists, psychiatrists, and primary care physicians use donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In 2005, the UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) withdrew its recommendation for use of the drug for mild-to-moderate AD, on the basis that there is no significant improvement in functional outcome; Currently, there is no definitive proof that use of donepezil or other similar agents alters the course or progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, 6-12 month controlled studies have shown modest benefits in cognition and/or behavior. Pilot studies have reported that donepezil therapy may potentially have effects on markers of disease progression, such as hippocampal volume. Therefore, many neurologists, psychiatrists, and primary care physicians use donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In 2005, the UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) withdrew its recommendation for use of the drug for mild-to-moderate AD, on the basis that there is no significant improvement in functional outcome; of quality of life or of behavioral symptoms. However, NICE revised its guidelines to suggest that donepezil be used in moderate stage patients for whom the evidence is strongest. While the drug is currently indicated for mild to moderate Alzheimer's, there is also evidence from 2 trials that it may be effective for moderate to severe disease. An example of this is a Karolinska Institute paper published in The Lancet in early 2006, which states that donepezil improves cognitive function even in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease symptoms. of quality of life or of behavioral symptoms. However, NICE revised its guidelines to suggest that donepezil be used in moderate stage patients for whom the evidence is strongest. While the drug is currently indicated for mild to moderate Alzheimer's, there is also evidence from 2 trials that it may be effective for moderate to severe disease. An example of this is a Karolinska Institute paper published in The Lancet in early 2006, which states that donepezil improves cognitive function even in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease symptoms.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Aricept
  2. Aricept ODT
  3. Donepezil hydrochloride
Chemical FormulaC24H29NO3
Average Molecular Weight379.492
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight379.214743799
IUPAC Name2-[(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one
Traditional Namedonepezil
CAS Registry Number120014-06-4
SMILES
COC1=C(OC)C=C2C(=O)C(CC3CCN(CC4=CC=CC=C4)CC3)CC2=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H29NO3/c1-27-22-14-19-13-20(24(26)21(19)15-23(22)28-2)12-17-8-10-25(11-9-17)16-18-6-4-3-5-7-18/h3-7,14-15,17,20H,8-13,16H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyADEBPBSSDYVVLD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
ClassIndanes
Sub ClassIndanones
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Indanes
  • cyclic ketone(ChEBI)
  • piperidines(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Alkyl Aryl Ether
  • Anisole
  • Ketone
  • Phenylmethylamine
  • Piperidine
  • Tertiary Aliphatic Amine (Trialkylamine)
Direct ParentIndanones
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0045 g/LALOGPS
logP4.14ALOGPS
logP4.21ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.62ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.77ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity112.11ChemAxon
Polarizability44.26ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Brain
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023607
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3040
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDonepezil
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05041
Metagene LinkHMDB05041
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3152
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID53289
References
Synthesis ReferenceSugimoto, Hachiro; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Higurashi, Kunizou; Karibe, Norio; Iimura, Yuoichi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Yamanashi, Yoshiharu; Ogura, Hiroo; Araki, Shin; et al. Preparation of 1-benzyl-4-(substituted alkyl)piperidines and analogs as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Eur. Pat. Appl. (1988), 103 pp. CODEN: EPXXDW EP 296560 A2 19881228 CAN 110:173102 AN 1989:173102
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Hayslett RL, Tizabi Y: Effects of donepezil, nicotine and haloperidol on the central serotonergic system in mice: implications for Tourette's syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Aug;81(4):879-86. Pubmed: 16045972
  2. Wang LN, Wang W, Zhang XH, Ma L, Yin H, Li DJ: [An interventional study on amnestic mild cognitive impairment with small dose donepezil] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2004 Oct;43(10):760-3. Pubmed: 15631830
  3. Emre M: Switching cholinesterase inhibitors in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2002 Jun;(127):64-72. Pubmed: 12139369
  4. Nakano S, Asada T, Matsuda H, Uno M, Takasaki M: Donepezil hydrochloride preserves regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Nucl Med. 2001 Oct;42(10):1441-5. Pubmed: 11585854
  5. Wilkinson DG, Francis PT, Schwam E, Payne-Parrish J: Cholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: the relationship between pharmacological effects and clinical efficacy. Drugs Aging. 2004;21(7):453-78. Pubmed: 15132713

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular weight:
67795.525
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular weight:
68417.575
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6