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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2009-07-25 00:08:24 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:25:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB12843
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name6-Hydroxyhexanoic acid
Description6-Hydroxyhexanoate was identified as the immediate product of hexanoate w-hydroxylation by whole cells and was further oxidized into adipic acid and an unexpected metabolite identified as 2-tetrahydrofuranacetic acid. This same metabolite, together with adipic acid, was also detected when similarly induced cells were incubated with hexanoate or 1,6-hexanediol, but not with 6-oxohexanoate (adipic semialdehyde).Cells grown on hexanoate and incubated with 6-hydroxyhexanoate were also found to accumulate 2-tetrahydrofuranacetic acid, which was not further degraded. Utilization of 6-hydroxyhexanoate for growth was restricted to those organisms also able to utilize adipate. Similar observations were made with 1,6-hexanediol serving as the carbon source and cells obtained from one organism,Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO, grown either on 1,6-hexanediol or 6-hydroxyhexanoate,were found to be well induced for both 6-oxohexanoate and adipate oxidation. The results indicate that 6-hydroxyhexanoate and 1,6-hexanediol are susceptible to both 1B- and w-oxidative attack; however, the former pathway appears to be of no physiological significance since it generates 2-tetrahydrofuranacetic acid as a nonmetabolizable intermediate, making w-oxidation via adipate the exclusive pathway for degradation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
5-CarboxypentanolChEBI
5-Hydroxypentanecarboxylic acidChEBI
6-Hydroxy caproic acidChEBI
6-Hydroxycaproic acidChEBI
6-HydroxyhexanoateChEBI
epsilon-Hydroxycaproic acidChEBI
epsilon-Hydroxyhexanoic acidChEBI
5-HydroxypentanecarboxylateGenerator
6-Hydroxy caproateGenerator
6-HydroxycaproateGenerator
epsilon-HydroxycaproateGenerator
epsilon-HydroxyhexanoateGenerator
Chemical FormulaC6H12O3
Average Molecular Weight132.1577
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight132.07864425
IUPAC Name6-hydroxyhexanoic acid
Traditional Name6-hydroxyhexanoic acid
CAS Registry Number1191-25-9
SMILES
OCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O3/c7-5-3-1-2-4-6(8)9/h7H,1-5H2,(H,8,9)
InChI KeyInChIKey=IWHLYPDWHHPVAA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are hydroxy acids with a 6 to 12 carbon atoms long side chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassMedium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentMedium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility69.7 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP0.37ChemAxon
logS-0.28ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.71ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity33 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.24 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0489 +/- 0.142 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0718 +/- 0.144 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.315 +/- 0.250 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.358 +/- 0.404 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB029184
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID13835
KEGG Compound IDC06103
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB12843
Metagene LinkHMDB12843
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound14490
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17869
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular weight:
36572.71
Reactions
6-Hydroxyhexanoic acid + NADP → Adipate semialdehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Gluconolactonase with low activity towards other sugar lactones, including gulonolactone and galactonolactone. Can also hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate and phenylacetate (in vitro). Calcium-binding protein. Modulates Ca(2+) signaling, and Ca(2+)-dependent cellular processes and enzyme activities (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RGN
Uniprot ID:
Q15493
Molecular weight:
33252.53
Reactions
epsilon-Caprolactone + Water → 6-Hydroxyhexanoic aciddetails