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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:44:53 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014355
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14355
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAdapalene
DescriptionAdapalene is a topical retinoid primarily used in the treatment of acne and is also used (off-label) to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions. It is currently marketed by Galderma under the trade names Differin in some countries, and Adaferin in India. [Wikipedia]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-(3-(1-Adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoic acidChEBI
AdaferinChEBI
AdapalenoChEBI
AdapalenumChEBI
DifferineChEBI
6-(3-(1-Adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoateGenerator
271, CDMeSH
DifferinMeSH
Chemical FormulaC28H28O3
Average Molecular Weight412.5201
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight412.203844762
IUPAC Name6-[3-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-methoxyphenyl]naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Namedifferin
CAS Registry Number106685-40-9
SMILES
COC1=C(C=C(C=C1)C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C=C(C=C2)C(O)=O)C12CC3CC(CC(C3)C1)C2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C28H28O3/c1-31-26-7-6-23(21-2-3-22-12-24(27(29)30)5-4-20(22)11-21)13-25(26)28-14-17-8-18(15-28)10-19(9-17)16-28/h2-7,11-13,17-19H,8-10,14-16H2,1H3,(H,29,30)
InChI KeyLZCDAPDGXCYOEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Adapalene
  • Phenylnaphthalene
  • 2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid
  • 2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Naphthalene
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Anisole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

  Parenteral:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Indirect biological role:

Biological role:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.0e-06 g/LNot Available
LogP8.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.0e-06 g/LALOGPS
logP6.06ALOGPS
logP6.46ChemAxon
logS-8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity122.07 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability47.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-0009000000-2169879160d27fbd36e2View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xs-8006900000-dedd288878501d101021View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dj-0009500000-35bff807860c9c78b28cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00kb-0119100000-2a0a0656abf4155b2552View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uei-0309000000-7b9438a46b2f18cdc7dfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0005900000-f70dd1ca3170a3828c5bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0i00-0019300000-00ba903e8fb2abb8a386View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ue9-1149000000-d93742cdc7563deb95faView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00210 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00210 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00210
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID54244
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAdapalene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound60164
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID31174
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Rolewski SL: Clinical review: topical retinoids. Dermatol Nurs. 2003 Oct;15(5):447-50, 459-65. [PubMed:14619325 ]
  2. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  3. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  4. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  5. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  6. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
This is a receptor for retinoic acid. This metabolite has profound effects on vertebrate development. Retinoic acid is a morphogen and is a powerful teratogen. This receptor controls cell function by directly regulating gene expression
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular weight:
50341.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
This is a receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid has profound effects on vertebrate development, is a morphogen and is a powerful teratogen. This receptor controls cell function by directly regulating gene expression. Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular weight:
50770.8
References
  1. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085 ]
  2. Griffiths CE, Ancian P, Humphries J, Poncet M, Rizova E, Michel S, Clucas A: Adapalene 0.1% gel and adapalene 0.1% cream stimulate retinoic acid receptor mediated gene transcription without significant irritative effects in the skin of healthy human volunteers. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:12-6. [PubMed:9990415 ]
  3. Michel S, Jomard A, Demarchez M: Pharmacology of adapalene. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:3-7. [PubMed:9990413 ]
  4. Shroot B, Michel S, Allec J, Chatelus A, Wagner N: A new concept of drug delivery for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):165-70. [PubMed:9557255 ]
  5. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
This is a receptor for retinoic acid. This metabolite has profound effects on vertebrate development. Retinoic acid is a morphogen and is a powerful teratogen. This receptor controls cell function by directly regulating gene expression
Gene Name:
RARB
Uniprot ID:
P10826
Molecular weight:
50488.6
References
  1. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085 ]
  2. Shroot B, Michel S, Allec J, Chatelus A, Wagner N: A new concept of drug delivery for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):165-70. [PubMed:9557255 ]
  3. Michel S, Jomard A, Demarchez M: Pharmacology of adapalene. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:3-7. [PubMed:9990413 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Involved in the retinoic acid response pathway. Binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA)
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular weight:
56921.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Involved in the retinoic acid response pathway. Binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA)
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular weight:
50870.7
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Involved in the retinoic acid response pathway. Binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA). ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular weight:
50810.8
References
  1. Bernard BA: Adapalene, a new chemical entity with retinoid activity. Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6 Suppl 1:61-9. [PubMed:8142113 ]
  2. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997 ]