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Record Information
Version4.0
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2017-09-27 08:27:47 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015002
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15002
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTacrolimus
DescriptionTacrolimus (also FK-506 or Fujimycin) is an immunosuppressive drug whose main use is after organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so the risk of organ rejection. It is also used in a topical preparation in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis, severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, and the skin condition vitiligo. It was discovered in 1984 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacteria Streptomyces tsukubaensis. Tacrolimus is chemically known as a macrolide. It reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity by binding to the immunophilin FKBP-12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. This FKBP12-FK506 complex interacts with and inhibits calcineurin thus inhibiting both T-lymphocyte signal transduction and IL-2 transcription.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Anhydrous, tacrolimusMeSH
Anhydrous tacrolimusMeSH
PrografMeSH
Tacrolimus anhydrousMeSH
Tacrolimus, anhydrousMeSH
Fujisawa brand OF tacrolimusMeSH
PrograftMeSH
Cilag brand OF tacrolimusMeSH
Janssen brand OF tacrolimusMeSH
Chemical FormulaC44H69NO12
Average Molecular Weight804.0182
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight803.481976677
IUPAC Name(1R,9S,12S,13R,14S,17R,18E,21S,23S,24R,25S,27R)-1,14-dihydroxy-12-[(1E)-1-[(1R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl]prop-1-en-2-yl]-23,25-dimethoxy-13,19,21,27-tetramethyl-17-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-11,28-dioxa-4-azatricyclo[22.3.1.0⁴,⁹]octacos-18-ene-2,3,10,16-tetrone
Traditional Nametacrolimus
CAS Registry Number104987-11-3
SMILES
[H]\C(=C(\C)[C@@]1([H])OC(=O)[C@]2([H])CCCCN2C(=O)C(=O)[C@]2(O)O[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])(C[C@@]2([H])C)OC)[C@]([H])(C[C@@]([H])(C)C\C(C)=C([H])\[C@@]([H])(CC=C)C(=O)C[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]1([H])C)OC)[C@]1([H])CC[C@@]([H])(O)[C@@]([H])(C1)OC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C44H69NO12/c1-10-13-31-19-25(2)18-26(3)20-37(54-8)40-38(55-9)22-28(5)44(52,57-40)41(49)42(50)45-17-12-11-14-32(45)43(51)56-39(29(6)34(47)24-35(31)48)27(4)21-30-15-16-33(46)36(23-30)53-7/h10,19,21,26,28-34,36-40,46-47,52H,1,11-18,20,22-24H2,2-9H3/b25-19-,27-21+/t26-,28+,29+,30-,31+,32-,33+,34-,36+,37-,38-,39+,40+,44+/m0/s1
InChI KeyQJJXYPPXXYFBGM-LJIGMGMYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as macrolide lactams. These are cyclic polyketides containing both a cyclic amide and a cyclic ester group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
Sub ClassMacrolide lactams
Direct ParentMacrolide lactams
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Macrolide lactam
  • Alpha-amino acid ester
  • Macrolide
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Oxane
  • Piperidine
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Hemiacetal
  • Ketone
  • Lactam
  • Lactone
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Industrial application:

Indirect biological role:

Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

    Psychiatric disorders:

    Vascular disorders:

    Nervous system disorders:

    Eye disorders:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point126 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.004 g/LNot Available
LogP3.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.004 g/LALOGPS
logP3.19ALOGPS
logP5.59ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area178.36 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity215.62 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability87.48 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0gvo-0000192300-507c8bb18631e452a484View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-066r-0000119030-65296f545a06c11d017bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-001i-0000009120-d1952a63d681e01b0eecView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f79-0200001930-3416d86dc0d61354fd20View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014u-1400003900-1705b8ca1b5858186d96View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00rf-5200008900-20683c9798305f220c92View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0000000490-b536a515071aa91b3d99View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0uei-0000000920-face0da2f9f0fced4ae7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-3000001900-75ecdc7e12ec9d9989ccView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
No entries found
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00864 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00864 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00864
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID393220
KEGG Compound IDC01375
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTacrolimus
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound445643
PDB IDFK5
ChEBI ID61049
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Liu J, Farmer JD Jr, Lane WS, Friedman J, Weissman I, Schreiber SL: Calcineurin is a common target of cyclophilin-cyclosporin A and FKBP-FK506 complexes. Cell. 1991 Aug 23;66(4):807-15. [PubMed:1715244 ]
  2. Kino T, Hatanaka H, Hashimoto M, Nishiyama M, Goto T, Okuhara M, Kohsaka M, Aoki H, Imanaka H: FK-506, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from a Streptomyces. I. Fermentation, isolation, and physico-chemical and biological characteristics. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1987 Sep;40(9):1249-55. [PubMed:2445721 ]
  3. Pritchard DI: Sourcing a chemical succession for cyclosporin from parasites and human pathogens. Drug Discov Today. 2005 May 15;10(10):688-91. [PubMed:15896681 ]
  4. Hanifin JM, Paller AS, Eichenfield L, Clark RA, Korman N, Weinstein G, Caro I, Jaracz E, Rico MJ: Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment treatment for up to 4 years in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Aug;53(2 Suppl 2):S186-94. [PubMed:16021174 ]
  5. Fukatsu S, Fukudo M, Masuda S, Yano I, Katsura T, Ogura Y, Oike F, Takada Y, Inui K: Delayed effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tacrolimus in a living-donor liver transplant recipient. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2006 Apr;21(2):122-5. [PubMed:16702731 ]
  6. (). FDA label . .

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in protein folding
Specific function:
May play a role in modulation of ryanodine receptor isoform-1 (RYR-1), a component of the calcium release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. There are four molecules of FKBP12 per skeletal muscle RYR. PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides
Gene Name:
FKBP1A
Uniprot ID:
P62942
Molecular weight:
11950.7
References
  1. Labrande C, Velly L, Canolle B, Guillet B, Masmejean F, Nieoullon A, Pisano P: Neuroprotective effects of tacrolimus (FK506) in a model of ischemic cortical cell cultures: role of glutamate uptake and FK506 binding protein 12 kDa. Neuroscience. 2006;137(1):231-9. Epub 2005 Nov 10. [PubMed:16289353 ]
  2. Masri M, Rizk S, Barbari A, Stephan A, Kamel G, Rost M: An assay for the determination of sirolimus levels in the lymphocyte of transplant patients. Transplant Proc. 2007 May;39(4):1204-6. [PubMed:17524933 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Schuetz EG, Beck WT, Schuetz JD: Modulators and substrates of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A coordinately up-regulate these proteins in human colon carcinoma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):311-8. [PubMed:8632764 ]
  2. Saeki T, Ueda K, Tanigawara Y, Hori R, Komano T: Human P-glycoprotein transports cyclosporin A and FK506. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 25;268(9):6077-80. [PubMed:7681059 ]
  3. Wandel C, Kim RB, Kajiji S, Guengerich P, Wilkinson GR, Wood AJ: P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P-450 3A inhibition: dissociation of inhibitory potencies. Cancer Res. 1999 Aug 15;59(16):3944-8. [PubMed:10463589 ]
  4. Hashida T, Masuda S, Uemoto S, Saito H, Tanaka K, Inui K: Pharmacokinetic and prognostic significance of intestinal MDR1 expression in recipients of living-donor liver transplantation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 May;69(5):308-16. [PubMed:11371998 ]
  5. Collett A, Tanianis-Hughes J, Hallifax D, Warhurst G: Predicting P-glycoprotein effects on oral absorption: correlation of transport in Caco-2 with drug pharmacokinetics in wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice in vivo. Pharm Res. 2004 May;21(5):819-26. [PubMed:15180340 ]
  6. Quezada CA, Garrido WX, Gonzalez-Oyarzun MA, Rauch MC, Salas MR, San Martin RE, Claude AA, Yanez AJ, Slebe JC, Carcamo JG: Effect of tacrolimus on activity and expression of P-glycoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) proteins in hematoencephalic barrier cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Oct;31(10):1911-6. [PubMed:18827354 ]