You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15356
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEnoxaparin
DescriptionEnoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin. Enoxaparin is used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa. Factor Xa catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, so enoxaparin's inhibition of this process results in decreased thrombin and ultimately the prevention of fibrin clot formation. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.
Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC26H42N2O37S5
Average Molecular Weight1134.928
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1134.006993818
IUPAC Name3-[(5-{[6-carboxy-4,5-dihydroxy-3-(sulfooxy)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(sulfoamino)-4-(sulfooxy)oxan-2-yl)oxy]-6-({5-acetamido-4,6-dihydroxy-2-[(sulfooxy)methyl]oxan-3-yl}oxy)-4-hydroxy-5-(sulfooxy)oxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameenoxaparin sodium
CAS Registry Number9005-49-6
SMILES
CC(=O)NC1C(O)OC(COS(O)(=O)=O)C(OC2OC(C(OC3OC(CO)C(OC4OC(C(O)C(O)C4OS(O)(=O)=O)C(O)=O)C(OS(O)(=O)=O)C3NS(O)(=O)=O)C(O)C2OS(O)(=O)=O)C(O)=O)C1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H42N2O37S5/c1-4(30)27-7-9(31)13(6(56-23(7)39)3-55-67(43,44)45)58-26-19(65-70(52,53)54)12(34)16(20(62-26)22(37)38)60-24-8(28-66(40,41)42)15(63-68(46,47)48)14(5(2-29)57-24)59-25-18(64-69(49,50)51)11(33)10(32)17(61-25)21(35)36/h5-20,23-26,28-29,31-34,39H,2-3H2,1H3,(H,27,30)(H,35,36)(H,37,38)(H,40,41,42)(H,43,44,45)(H,46,47,48)(H,49,50,51)(H,52,53,54)
InChI KeyInChIKey=HTTJABKRGRZYRN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligosaccharide sulfates. These are carbohydrates containing between 3 and 9 sugar units, one of which bear one or more sulfate groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassOligosaccharides
Direct ParentOligosaccharide sulfates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Oligosaccharide sulfate
  • Acylaminosugar
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • N-acyl-alpha-hexosamine
  • O-glucuronide
  • 1-o-glucuronide
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Glucosamine
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Pyran carboxylic acid
  • Pyran carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amino saccharide
  • Sulfuric acid monoester
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Sulfuric acid ester
  • Alkyl sulfate
  • Sulfate-ester
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • Sulfuric acid monoamide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Acetamide
  • Organic sulfuric acid or derivatives
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anticoagulants
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Heparins
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.08e+01 g/LNot Available
LogP-13.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.8 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.7ALOGPS
logP-8.3ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count33ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count15ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area610.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count20ChemAxon
Refractivity195.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability93.37 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ardeparin PathwaySMP00275Not Available
Enoxaparin PathwaySMP00272Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01225
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01225
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01225
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID751
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkEnoxaparin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15356
Metagene LinkHMDB15356
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound772
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular weight:
83867.71
References
  1. Rudolph TK, Rudolph V, Witte A, Klinke A, Szoecs K, Lau D, Heitzer T, Meinertz T, Baldus S: Liberation of vessel adherent myeloperoxidase by enoxaparin improves endothelial function. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Apr 1;140(1):42-7. Epub 2008 Dec 2. [19049846 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory activity is greatly enhanced in the presence of heparin
Gene Name:
SERPINC1
Uniprot ID:
P01008
Molecular weight:
52601.9
References
  1. Peng K, Wang C, Pang BS, Yang YH: [Effects of thrombolysis and anticoagulation on the functions of vascular endothelial cells and coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2005 Sep;28(9):596-9. [16207425 ]
  2. Lee S, Gibson CM: Enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007 May;5(3):387-99. [17489664 ]
  3. Bisio A, Vecchietti D, Citterio L, Guerrini M, Raman R, Bertini S, Eisele G, Naggi A, Sasisekharan R, Torri G: Structural features of low-molecular-weight heparins affecting their affinity to antithrombin. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Nov;102(5):865-73. [19888521 ]
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Factor Xa is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, calcium and phospholipid during blood clotting
Gene Name:
F10
Uniprot ID:
P00742
Molecular weight:
54731.3
References
  1. Graff J, Picard-Willems B, Harder S: Monitoring effects of direct FXa-inhibitors with a new one-step prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) assay: comparative in vitro investigation with heparin, enoxaparin, fondaparinux and DX 9065a. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Apr;45(4):237-43. [17474542 ]
  2. Berges A, Laporte S, Epinat M, Zufferey P, Alamartine E, Tranchand B, Decousus H, Mismetti P: Anti-factor Xa activity of enoxaparin administered at prophylactic dosage to patients over 75 years old. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;64(4):428-38. Epub 2007 May 17. [17509040 ]
  3. Sanchez-Pena P, Hulot JS, Urien S, Ankri A, Collet JP, Choussat R, Lechat P, Montalescot G: Anti-factor Xa kinetics after intravenous enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a population model analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;60(4):364-73. [16187968 ]
  4. Dalmora SL, Junior LB, Schmidt CA, Vaccari SF, Oliveira PR, Codevilla CF: Validation of the anti-factor Xa assay for the potency assessment of enoxaparin in pharmaceutical formulations. J AOAC Int. 2004 Nov-Dec;87(6):1305-8. [15675440 ]
  5. Paige JT, Gouda BP, Gaitor-Stampley V, Scalia PG, Klainer TE, Raum WJ, Martin LF: No correlation between anti-factor Xa levels, low-molecular-weight heparin, and bleeding after gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007 Jul-Aug;3(4):469-75. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [17567541 ]