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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2013-05-17 01:26:04 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 08:07:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB60510
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSN-38
Description7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) is the active metabolite of irinotecan (an analog of camptothecin - a topoisomerase I inhibitor); it is 1000 times more active than irinotecan itself. In vitro cytotoxicity assays show that the potency of SN-38 relative to irinotecan varies from 2- to 2000-fold. SN38 is metabolized via glucoronidation by UGT1A1. (Wikipedia) 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), the active metabolite of irinotecan, exerts a 100-fold to 1000-fold higher effect than irinotecan itself against several tumor cell lines. (PMID: 23233044 ) Among five chemotherapeutic agents commonly used for breast cancer treatment, only an irinotecan metabolite SN38 showed additive antitumor activity with olaparib. (PMID: 22454224 ) Metabolism of irinotecan to SN38 is inefficient and subject to considerable patient-to-patient variability. One approach to more controlled administration of the anticancer agent is direct administration of the active SN38. (PMID: 23299391 )
Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC22H20N2O5
Average Molecular Weight392.4046
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight392.13722176
IUPAC Name(19S)-10,19-diethyl-7,19-dihydroxy-17-oxa-3,13-diazapentacyclo[11.8.0.0²,¹¹.0⁴,⁹.0¹⁵,²⁰]henicosa-1(21),2(11),3,5,7,9,15(20)-heptaene-14,18-dione
Traditional Name7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCC1=C2C=C(O)C=CC2=NC2=C1CN1C2=CC2=C(COC(=O)[C@]2(O)CC)C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1/C22H20N2O5/c1-3-12-13-7-11(25)5-6-17(13)23-19-14(12)9-24-18(19)8-16-15(20(24)26)10-29-21(27)22(16,28)4-2/h5-8,25,28H,3-4,9-10H2,1-2H3/t22-/s2
InChI KeyInChIKey=FJHBVJOVLFPMQE-ANBDAQEENA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as camptothecins. These are heterocyclic compounds comprising a planar pentacyclic ring structure, that includes a pyrrolo[3,4-beta]-quinoline moiety (rings A, B and C), conjugated pyridone moiety (ring D) and one chiral center at position 20 within the alpha-hydroxy lactone ring with (S) configuration (the E-ring).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassCamptothecins
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCamptothecins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Camptothecin
  • Hydroxyquinoline
  • Quinoline
  • Pyranopyridine
  • Pyridinone
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Lactam
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.29 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.73ALOGPS
logP1.87ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.96 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity106.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID94634
KEGG Compound IDC11173
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB60510
Metagene LinkHMDB60510
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound104842
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID161315
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Magrane M, Consortium U: UniProt Knowledgebase: a hub of integrated protein data. Database (Oxford). 2011 Mar 29;2011:bar009. doi: 10.1093/database/bar009. Print 2011. [21447597 ]
  2. Sostelly A, Payen L, Guitton J, Pietro AD, Falson P, Honorat M, Boumendjel A, Geze A, Freyer G, Tod M: Quantitative evaluation of the combination between cytotoxic drug and efflux transporter inhibitors based on a tumour growth inhibition model. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Feb 6. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12005. [23384250 ]
  3. Yao Y, Su X, Xie Y, Wang Y, Kang T, Gou L, Yi C, Yang J: Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor evaluation of the albumin-SN38 conjugate. Anticancer Drugs. 2013 Mar;24(3):270-7. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e32835c3543. [23233044 ]
  4. Sostelly A, Payen L, Guitton J, Pietro AD, Falson P, Honorat M, Valdameri G, Geze A, Boumendjel A, Freyer G, Tod M: A template model for studying anticancer drug efflux transporter inhibitors in vitro. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Jun 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2012.01054.x. [22882086 ]
  5. Shimo T, Kurebayashi J, Kanomata N, Yamashita T, Kozuka Y, Moriya T, Sonoo H: Antitumor and anticancer stem cell activity of a poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor olaparib in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer. 2012 Mar 28. [22454224 ]
  6. Al-Kasspooles MF, Williamson SK, Henry D, Howell J, Niu F, Decedue CJ, Roby KF: Preclinical antitumor activity of a nanoparticulate SN38. Invest New Drugs. 2013 Jan 9. [23299391 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular weight:
38742.9
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B10
Uniprot ID:
P36537
Molecular weight:
60773.485
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular weight:
61035.815
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Gene Name:
UGT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4X1
Molecular weight:
60771.605
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular weight:
59741.035
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular weight:
60337.835
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW8
Molecular weight:
59809.075
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The major substrates of this isozyme are eugenol > 4-methylumbelliferone > dihydrotestosterone (DHT) > androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) > testosterone > androsterone (ADT).
Gene Name:
UGT2B17
Uniprot ID:
O75795
Molecular weight:
61094.915
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A5
Uniprot ID:
P35504
Molecular weight:
60070.565
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B11
Uniprot ID:
O75310
Molecular weight:
61037.8
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW7
Molecular weight:
59818.315
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular weight:
62520.62
Reactions
Irinotecan + Water → SN-38 + 1,4'-Bipiperidine-1'-carboxylic aciddetails
NPC + Water → SN-38 + 4-Amino-1-piperidinecarboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.
Gene Name:
CES2
Uniprot ID:
O00748
Molecular weight:
68898.39
Reactions
Irinotecan + Water → SN-38 + 1,4'-Bipiperidine-1'-carboxylic aciddetails
NPC + Water → SN-38 + 4-Amino-1-piperidinecarboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the degradation of dermatan and keratan sulfates.
Gene Name:
GUSB
Uniprot ID:
P08236
Molecular weight:
74731.46
Reactions
SN38 glucuronide + Water → SN-38 + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWM9
Molecular weight:
60253.94
Reactions
SN-38 + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → SN38 glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails