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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00181
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5413
  • HMDBP05346
Name Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Synonyms
  1. XD
  2. XO
  3. Xanthine dehydrogenase
  4. Xanthine oxidase
  5. Xanthine oxidoreductase
Gene Name XDH
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Pathways
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)
  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
  • Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
  • AICA-Ribosiduria
  • Azathioprine Action Pathway
  • Caffeine metabolism
  • Caffeine Metabolism
  • Doxorubicin Metabolism Pathway
  • Drug metabolism - other enzymes
  • Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller Syndrome
  • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)
  • Mercaptopurine Action Pathway
  • Mercaptopurine Metabolism Pathway
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome
  • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency
  • Peroxisome
  • Purine Metabolism
  • Purine metabolism
  • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
  • Thioguanine Action Pathway
  • Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)
  • Xanthinuria type I
  • Xanthinuria type II
Reactions
Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water → Xanthine + NADH details
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen → Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water → Xanthine + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
Hypoxanthine + Oxygen + Water → Xanthine + Hydrogen peroxide details
Xanthine + NAD + Water → Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
1-Methylxanthine + Water + Oxygen → 1-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Paraxanthine + Oxygen + Water → 1,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Theobromine + Water + Oxygen → 3,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
7-Methylxanthine + Oxygen + Water → 7-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxide details
Mercaptopurine + Water + Oxygen → 6-Thiourate + Hydrogen peroxide details
GO Classification
Biological Process
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
purine nucleotide catabolic process
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation
negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway
negative regulation of vasculogenesis
positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade
xanthine catabolic process
lactation
negative regulation of gene expression
Cellular Component
cytosol
extracellular region
peroxisome
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch or ch2 groups
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
electron carrier activity
metal cluster binding
iron-sulfur cluster binding
iron ion binding
molybdenum ion binding
oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch or ch2 groups, oxygen as acceptor
xanthine oxidase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch or ch2 groups, nad or nadp as acceptor
xanthine dehydrogenase activity
oxidoreductase activity
fad or fadh2 binding
Molecular Function
electron carrier activity
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
molybdopterin cofactor binding
UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase activity
xanthine dehydrogenase activity
iron ion binding
xanthine oxidase activity
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
  2. Peroxisome
  3. Secreted
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 2
Locus 2p23.1
SNPs XDH
Gene Sequence
>4002 bp
ATGACAGCAGACAAATTGGTTTTCTTTGTGAATGGCAGAAAGGTGGTGGAGAAAAATGCA
GATCCAGAGACAACCCTTTTGGCCTACCTGAGAAGAAAGTTGGGGCTGAGTGGAACCAAG
CTCGGCTGTGGAGAGGGGGGCTGCGGGGCTTGCACAGTGATGCTCTCCAAGTATGATCGT
CTGCAGAACAAGATCGTCCACTTTTCTGCCAATGCCTGCCTGGCCCCCATCTGCTCCTTG
CACCATGTTGCAGTGACAACTGTGGAAGGAATAGGAAGCACCAAGACGAGGCTGCATCCT
GTGCAGGAGAGAATTGCCAAAAGCCACGGCTCCCAGTGCGGGTTCTGCACCCCTGGCATC
GTCATGAGTATGTACACACTGCTCCGGAATCAGCCCGAGCCCACCATGGAGGAGATTGAG
AATGCCTTCCAAGGAAATCTGTGCCGCTGCACAGGCTACAGACCCATCCTCCAGGGCTTC
CGGACCTTTGCCAGGGATGGTGGATGCTGTGGAGGAGATGGGAATAATCCAAATTGCTGC
ATGAACCAGAAGAAAGACCACTCAGTCAGCCTCTCGCCATCTTTATTCAAACCAGAGGAG
TTCACGCCCCTGGATCCAACCCAGGAGCCCATTTTTCCCCCAGAGTTGCTGAGGCTGAAA
GACACTCCTCGGAAGCAGCTGCGATTTGAAGGGGAGCGTGTGACGTGGATACAGGCCTCA
ACCCTCAAGGAGCTGCTGGACCTCAAGGCTCAGCACCCTGACGCCAAGCTGGTCGTGGGG
AACACGGAGATTGGCATTGAGATGAAGTTCAAGAATATGCTGTTTCCTATGATTGTCTGC
CCAGCCTGGATCCCTGAGCTGAATTCGGTAGAACATGGACCCGACGGTATCTCCTTTGGA
GCTGCTTGCCCCCTGAGCATTGTGGAAAAAACCCTGGTGGATGCTGTTGCTAAGCTTCCT
GCCCAAAAGACAGAGGTGTTCAGAGGGGTCCTGGAGCAGCTGCGCTGGTTTGCTGGGAAG
CAAGTCAAGTCTGTGGCGTCCGTTGGAGGGAACATCATCACTGCCAGCCCCATCTCCGAC
CTCAACCCCGTGTTCATGGCCAGTGGGGCCAAGCTGACACTTGTGTCCAGAGGCACCAGG
AGAACTGTCCAGATGGACCACACCTTCTTCCCTGGCTACAGAAAGACCCTGCTGAGCCCG
GAGGAGATACTGCTCTCCATAGAGATCCCCTACAGCAGGGAGGGGGAGTATTTCTCAGCA
TTCAAGCAGGCCTCCCGGAGAGAAGATGACATTGCCAAGGTAACCAGTGGCATGAGAGTT
TTATTCAAGCCAGGAACCACAGAGGTACAGGAGCTGGCCCTTTGCTATGGTGGAATGGCC
AACAGAACCATCTCAGCCCTCAAGACCACTCAGAGGCAGCTTTCCAAGCTCTGGAAGGAG
GAGCTGCTGCAGGACGTGTGTGCAGGACTGGCAGAGGAGCTGCATCTGCCTCCCGATGCC
CCTGGTGGCATGGTGGACTTCCGGTGCACCCTCACCCTCAGCTTCTTCTTCAAGTTCTAC
CTGACAGTCCTTCAGAAGCTGGGCCAAGAGAACCTGGAAGACAAGTGTGGTAAACTGGAC
CCCACTTTCGCCAGTGCAACTTTACTGTTTCAGAAAGACCCCCCAGCCGATGTCCAGCTC
TTCCAAGAGGTGCCCAAGGGTCAGTCTGAGGAGGACATGGTGGGCCGGCCCCTGCCCCAC
CTGGCAGCGGACATGCAGGCCTCTGGTGAGGCCGTGTACTGTGACGACATTCCTCGCTAC
GAGAATGAGCTGTCTCTCCGGCTGGTCACCAGCACCCGGGCCCACGCCAAGATCAAGTCC
ATAGATACATCAGAAGCTAAGAAGGTTCCAGGGTTTGTTTGTTTCATTTCCGCTGATGAT
GTTCCTGGGAGTAACATAACTGGAATTTGTAATGATGAGACAGTCTTTGCGAAGGATAAG
GTTACTTGTGTTGGGCATATCATTGGTGCTGTGGTTGCTGACACCCCGGAACACACACAG
AGAGCTGCCCAAGGGGTGAAAATCACCTATGAAGAACTACCAGCCATTATCACAATTGAG
GATGCTATAAAGAACAACTCCTTTTATGGACCTGAGCTGAAGATCGAGAAAGGGGACCTA
AAGAAGGGGTTTTCCGAAGCAGATAATGTTGTGTCAGGGGAGATATACATCGGTGGCCAA
GAGCACTTCTACCTGGAGACTCACTGCACCATTGCTGTTCCAAAAGGCGAGGCAGGGGAG
ATGGAGCTCTTTGTGTCTACACAGAACACCATGAAGACCCAGAGCTTTGTTGCAAAAATG
TTGGGGGTTCCAGCAAACCGGATTGTGGTTCGAGTGAAGAGAATGGGAGGAGGCTTTGGA
GGCAAGGAGACCCGGAGCACTGTGGTGTCCACGGCAGTGGCCCTGGCTGCATATAAGACC
GGCCGCCCTGTGCGATGCATGCTGGACCGTGATGAGGACATGCTGATAACTGGTGGCAGA
CATCCCTTCCTGGCCAGATACAAGGTTGGCTTCATGAAGACTGGGACAGTTGTGGCTCTT
GAGGTGGACCACTTCAGCAATGTGGGGAACACCCAGGATCTCTCTCAGAGTATTATGGAA
CGAGCTTTATTCCACATGGACAACTGCTATAAAATCCCCAACATCCGGGGCACTGGGCGG
CTGTGCAAAACCAACCTTCCCTCCAACACGGCCTTCCGGGGCTTTGGGGGGCCCCAGGGG
ATGCTCATTGCCGAGTGCTGGATGAGTGAAGTTGCAGTGACCTGTGGGATGCCTGCAGAG
GAGGTGCGGAGAAAAAACCTGTACAAAGAAGGGGACCTGACACACTTCAACCAGAAGCTT
GAGGGTTTCACCTTGCCCAGATGCTGGGAAGAATGCCTAGCAAGCTCTCAGTATCATGCT
CGGAAGAGTGAGGTTGACAAGTTCAACAAGGAGAATTGTTGGAAAAAGAGAGGATTGTGC
ATAATTCCCACCAAGTTTGGAATAAGCTTCACAGTTCCTTTTCTGAATCAGGCAGGAGCC
CTACTTCATGTGTACACAGATGGCTCTGTGCTGCTGACCCACGGGGGGACTGAGATGGGC
CAAGGCCTTCATACCAAAATGGTCCAGGTGGCCAGTAGAGCTCTGAAAATCCCCACCTCT
AAGATTTATATCAGCGAGACAAGCACTAACACTGTGCCCAACACCTCTCCCACGGCTGCC
TCTGTCAGCGCTGACCTCAATGGACAGGCCGTCTATGCGGCTTGTCAGACCATCTTGAAA
AGGCTGGAACCCTACAAGAAGAAGAATCCCAGTGGCTCCTGGGAAGACTGGGTCACAGCT
GCCTACATGGACACAGTGAGCTTGTCTGCCACTGGGTTTTATAGAACACCCAATCTGGGC
TACAGCTTTGAGACTAACTCAGGGAACCCCTTCCACTACTTCAGCTATGGGGTGGCTTGC
TCTGAAGTAGAAATCGACTGCCTAACAGGAGATCATAAGAACCTCCGCACAGATATTGTC
ATGGATGTTGGCTCCAGTCTAAACCCTGCCATTGATATTGGACAGGTGGAAGGGGCATTT
GTCCAGGGCCTTGGCCTCTTCACCCTAGAGGAGCTACACTATTCCCCCGAGGGGAGCCTG
CACACCCGTGGCCCTAGCACCTACAAGATCCCGGCATTTGGCAGCATCCCCATTGAGTTC
AGGGTGTCCCTGCTCCGCGACTGCCCCAACAAGAAGGCCATCTATGCATCGAAGGCTGTT
GGAGAGCCGCCCCTCTTCCTGGCTGCTTCTATCTTCTTTGCCATCAAAGATGCCATCCGT
GCAGCTCGAGCTCAGCACACAGGTAATAACGTGAAGGAACTCTTCCGGCTAGACAGCCCT
GCCACCCCGGAGAAGATCCGCAATGCCTGCGTGGACAAGTTCACCACCCTGTGTGTCACT
GGTGTCCCAGAAAACTGCAAACCCTGGTCTGTGAGGGTCTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 1333
Molecular Weight 146422.99
Theoretical pI 7.663
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
MTADKLVFFVNGRKVVEKNADPETTLLAYLRRKLGLSGTKLGCGEGGCGACTVMLSKYDR
LQNKIVHFSANACLAPICSLHHVAVTTVEGIGSTKTRLHPVQERIAKSHGSQCGFCTPGI
VMSMYTLLRNQPEPTMEEIENAFQGNLCRCTGYRPILQGFRTFARDGGCCGGDGNNPNCC
MNQKKDHSVSLSPSLFKPEEFTPLDPTQEPIFPPELLRLKDTPRKQLRFEGERVTWIQAS
TLKELLDLKAQHPDAKLVVGNTEIGIEMKFKNMLFPMIVCPAWIPELNSVEHGPDGISFG
AACPLSIVEKTLVDAVAKLPAQKTEVFRGVLEQLRWFAGKQVKSVASVGGNIITASPISD
LNPVFMASGAKLTLVSRGTRRTVQMDHTFFPGYRKTLLSPEEILLSIEIPYSREGEYFSA
FKQASRREDDIAKVTSGMRVLFKPGTTEVQELALCYGGMANRTISALKTTQRQLSKLWKE
ELLQDVCAGLAEELHLPPDAPGGMVDFRCTLTLSFFFKFYLTVLQKLGQENLEDKCGKLD
PTFASATLLFQKDPPADVQLFQEVPKGQSEEDMVGRPLPHLAADMQASGEAVYCDDIPRY
ENELSLRLVTSTRAHAKIKSIDTSEAKKVPGFVCFISADDVPGSNITGICNDETVFAKDK
VTCVGHIIGAVVADTPEHTQRAAQGVKITYEELPAIITIEDAIKNNSFYGPELKIEKGDL
KKGFSEADNVVSGEIYIGGQEHFYLETHCTIAVPKGEAGEMELFVSTQNTMKTQSFVAKM
LGVPANRIVVRVKRMGGGFGGKETRSTVVSTAVALAAYKTGRPVRCMLDRDEDMLITGGR
HPFLARYKVGFMKTGTVVALEVDHFSNVGNTQDLSQSIMERALFHMDNCYKIPNIRGTGR
LCKTNLPSNTAFRGFGGPQGMLIAECWMSEVAVTCGMPAEEVRRKNLYKEGDLTHFNQKL
EGFTLPRCWEECLASSQYHARKSEVDKFNKENCWKKRGLCIIPTKFGISFTVPFLNQAGA
LLHVYTDGSVLLTHGGTEMGQGLHTKMVQVASRALKIPTSKIYISETSTNTVPNTSPTAA
SVSADLNGQAVYAACQTILKRLEPYKKKNPSGSWEDWVTAAYMDTVSLSATGFYRTPNLG
YSFETNSGNPFHYFSYGVACSEVEIDCLTGDHKNLRTDIVMDVGSSLNPAIDIGQVEGAF
VQGLGLFTLEELHYSPEGSLHTRGPSTYKIPAFGSIPIEFRVSLLRDCPNKKAIYASKAV
GEPPLFLAASIFFAIKDAIRAARAQHTGNNVKELFRLDSPATPEKIRNACVDKFTTLCVT
GVPENCKPWSVRV
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P47989
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name XDH_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID D11456
GeneCard ID XDH
GenAtlas ID XDH
HGNC ID HGNC:12805
References
General References
  1. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M: Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Cell. 2006 Nov 3;127(3):635-48. [PubMed:17081983 ]
  2. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959974 ]
  3. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T: Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene. Gene. 1993 Nov 15;133(2):279-84. [PubMed:8224915 ]
  4. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Harrison R, Hoidal JR: Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Mar 15;199(2):998-1004. [PubMed:8135849 ]
  5. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Harrison R, Hoidal JR: Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Oct 4;215(1):429. [PubMed:7575623 ]
  6. Saksela M, Raivio KO: Cloning and expression in vitro of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase. Biochem J. 1996 Apr 1;315 ( Pt 1):235-9. [PubMed:8670112 ]
  7. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O: Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. J Clin Invest. 1997 May 15;99(10):2391-7. [PubMed:9153281 ]
  8. Levartovsky D, Lagziel A, Sperling O, Liberman U, Yaron M, Hosoya T, Ichida K, Peretz H: XDH gene mutation is the underlying cause of classical xanthinuria: a second report. Kidney Int. 2000 Jun;57(6):2215-20. [PubMed:10844591 ]
  9. Picariello G, Ferranti P, Mamone G, Roepstorff P, Addeo F: Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008 Sep;8(18):3833-47. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200701057. [PubMed:18780401 ]
  10. Yamaguchi Y, Matsumura T, Ichida K, Okamoto K, Nishino T: Human xanthine oxidase changes its substrate specificity to aldehyde oxidase type upon mutation of amino acid residues in the active site: roles of active site residues in binding and activation of purine substrate. J Biochem. 2007 Apr;141(4):513-24. Epub 2007 Feb 14. [PubMed:17301077 ]
  11. Sakamoto N, Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Teranishi T, Toyoda M, Onishi Y, Kuroda S, Sakaguchi K, Fujisawa T, Maeda M, Hada T: Identification of a new point mutation in the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for a case of classical type I xanthinuria. Hum Genet. 2001 Apr;108(4):279-83. [PubMed:11379872 ]
  12. Gok F, Ichida K, Topaloglu R: Mutational analysis of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive classical xanthinuria. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Nov;18(11):2278-83. [PubMed:14551354 ]