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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00278
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5510
  • HMDBP04351
  • HMDBP05539
  • HMDBP08997
Name Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
Synonyms
  1. AADC
  2. DDC
  3. DOPA decarboxylase
Gene Name DDC
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Pathways
  • Alcoholism
  • Alkaptonuria
  • Amphetamine addiction
  • Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase Deficiency
  • Catecholamine Biosynthesis
  • Cocaine addiction
  • Disulfiram Action Pathway
  • Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency
  • dopamine biosynthesis
  • Dopaminergic synapse
  • Hawkinsinuria
  • Histidine metabolism
  • Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Serotonergic synapse
  • Tryptophan Metabolism
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency
  • Tyrosine Metabolism
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Tyrosinemia Type I
  • Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newborn
Reactions
L-Dopa → Dopamine + CO(2) details
Oxitriptan → Serotonin + CO(2) details
L-Tryptophan → Tryptamine + Carbon dioxide details
L-Phenylalanine → Phenylethylamine + Carbon dioxide details
L-Tyrosine → Tyramine + Carbon dioxide details
L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxide details
L-Dopa → Dopamine + Carbon dioxide details
Oxitriptan → Serotonin + Carbon dioxide details
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Carbon dioxide → 5-Hydroxykynurenine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
indolalkylamine biosynthetic process
cellular response to drug
cellular response to alkaloid
dopamine biosynthetic process
multicellular organismal aging
phytoalexin metabolic process
response to pyrethroid
serotonin biosynthetic process
synaptic vesicle amine transport
cellular amino acid metabolic process
isoquinoline alkaloid metabolic process
cellular response to growth factor stimulus
circadian rhythm
catecholamine biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
synaptic vesicle
neuronal cell body
axon
Function
binding
catalytic activity
lyase activity
carbon-carbon lyase activity
carboxy-lyase activity
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
Molecular Function
aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase activity
pyridoxal phosphate binding
amino acid binding
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolism
cellular metabolic process
organic acid metabolic process
oxoacid metabolic process
carboxylic acid metabolic process
physiological process
metabolism
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
amino acid and derivative metabolism
amino acid metabolism
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 7
Locus 7p12.2
SNPs DDC
Gene Sequence
>1443 bp
ATGAACGCAAGTGAATTCCGAAGGAGAGGGAAGGAGATGGTGGATTACGTGGCCAACTAC
ATGGAAGGCATTGAGGGACGCCAGGTCTACCCTGACGTGGAGCCCGGGTACCTGCGGCCG
CTGATCCCTGCCGCTGCCCCTCAGGAGCCAGACACGTTTGAGGACATCATCAACGACGTT
GAGAAGATAATCATGCCTGGGGTGACGCACTGGCACAGCCCCTACTTCTTCGCCTACTTC
CCCACTGCCAGCTCGTACCCGGCCATGCTTGCGGACATGCTGTGCGGGGCCATTGGCTGC
ATCGGCTTCTCCTGGGCGGCAAGCCCAGCATGCACAGAGCTGGAGACTGTGATGATGGAC
TGGCTCGGGAAGATGCTGGAACTACCAAAGGCATTTTTGAATGAGAAAGCTGGAGAAGGG
GGAGGAGTGATCCAGGGAAGTGCCAGTGAAGCCACCCTGGTGGCCCTGCTGGCCGCTCGG
ACCAAAGTGATCCATCGGCTGCAGGCAGCGTCCCCAGAGCTCACACAGGCCGCTATCATG
GAGAAGCTGGTGGCTTACTCATCCGATCAGGCACACTCCTCAGTGGAAAGAGCTGGGTTA
ATTGGTGGAGTGAAATTAAAAGCCATCCCCTCAGATGGCAACTTCGCCATGCGTGCGTCT
GCCCTGCAGGAAGCCCTGGAGAGAGACAAAGCGGCTGGCCTGATTCCTTTCTTTATGGTT
GCCACCCTGGGGACCACAACATGCTGCTCCTTTGACAATCTCTTAGAAGTCGGTCCTATC
TGCAACAAGGAAGACATATGGCTGCACGTTGATGCAGCCTACGCAGGCAGTGCATTCATC
TGCCCTGAGTTCCGGCACCTTCTGAATGGAGTGGAGTTTGCAGATTCATTCAACTTTAAT
CCCCACAAATGGCTATTGGTGAATTTTGACTGTTCTGCCATGTGGGTGAAAAAGAGAACA
GACTTAACGGGAGCCTTTAGACTGGACCCCACTTACCTGAAGCACAGCCATCAGGATTCA
GGGCTTATCACTGACTACCGGCATTGGCAGATACCACTGGGCAGAAGATTTCGCTCTTTG
AAAATGTGGTTTGTATTTAGGATGTATGGAGTCAAAGGACTGCAGGCTTATATCCGCAAG
CATGTCCAGCTGTCCCATGAGTTTGAGTCACTGGTGCGCCAGGATCCCCGCTTTGAAATC
TGTGTGGAAGTCATTCTGGGGCTTGTCTGCTTTCGGCTAAAGGGTTCCAACAAAGTGAAT
GAAGCTCTTCTGCAAAGAATAAACAGTGCCAAAAAAATCCACTTGGTTCCATGTCACCTC
AGGGACAAGTTTGTCCTGCGCTTTGCCATCTGTTCTCGCACGGTGGAATCTGCCCATGTG
CAGCGGGCCTGGGAACACATCAAAGAGCTGGCGGCCGACGTGCTGCGAGCAGAGAGGGAG
TAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 480
Molecular Weight 53893.755
Theoretical pI 7.197
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
MNASEFRRRGKEMVDYVANYMEGIEGRQVYPDVEPGYLRPLIPAAAPQEPDTFEDIINDV
EKIIMPGVTHWHSPYFFAYFPTASSYPAMLADMLCGAIGCIGFSWAASPACTELETVMMD
WLGKMLELPKAFLNEKAGEGGGVIQGSASEATLVALLAARTKVIHRLQAASPELTQAAIM
EKLVAYSSDQAHSSVERAGLIGGVKLKAIPSDGNFAMRASALQEALERDKAAGLIPFFMV
ATLGTTTCCSFDNLLEVGPICNKEDIWLHVDAAYAGSAFICPEFRHLLNGVEFADSFNFN
PHKWLLVNFDCSAMWVKKRTDLTGAFRLDPTYLKHSHQDSGLITDYRHWQIPLGRRFRSL
KMWFVFRMYGVKGLQAYIRKHVQLSHEFESLVRQDPRFEICVEVILGLVCFRLKGSNKVN
EALLQRINSAKKIHLVPCHLRDKFVLRFAICSRTVESAHVQRAWEHIKELAADVLRAERE
GenBank ID Protein 41393464
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P20711
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name DDC_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M76180
GeneCard ID DDC
GenAtlas ID DDC
HGNC ID HGNC:2719
References
General References
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  2. Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7. Nature. 2003 Jul 10;424(6945):157-64. [PubMed:12853948 ]
  3. Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):231-8. [PubMed:10391209 ]
  4. Ichinose H, Kurosawa Y, Titani K, Fujita K, Nagatsu T: Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Nov 15;164(3):1024-30. [PubMed:2590185 ]
  5. Scherer LJ, McPherson JD, Wasmuth JJ, Marsh JL: Human dopa decarboxylase: localization to human chromosome 7p11 and characterization of hepatic cDNAs. Genomics. 1992 Jun;13(2):469-71. [PubMed:1612608 ]
  6. Sumi-Ichinose C, Ichinose H, Takahashi E, Hori T, Nagatsu T: Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the enzyme for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 1992 Mar 3;31(8):2229-38. [PubMed:1540578 ]
  7. Le Van Thai A, Coste E, Allen JM, Palmiter RD, Weber MJ: Identification of a neuron-specific promoter of human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1993 Mar;17(3-4):227-38. [PubMed:8510497 ]
  8. Craig SP, Thai AL, Weber M, Craig IW: Localisation of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) to chromosome 7p13-->p11 by in situ hybridisation. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;61(2):114-6. [PubMed:1395716 ]
  9. Chang YT, Sharma R, Marsh JL, McPherson JD, Bedell JA, Knust A, Brautigam C, Hoffmann GF, Hyland K: Levodopa-responsive aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Ann Neurol. 2004 Mar;55(3):435-8. [PubMed:14991824 ]
  10. Pons R, Ford B, Chiriboga CA, Clayton PT, Hinton V, Hyland K, Sharma R, De Vivo DC: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. Neurology. 2004 Apr 13;62(7):1058-65. [PubMed:15079002 ]