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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00358
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5594
Name Porphobilinogen deaminase
Synonyms
  1. HMBS
  2. Hydroxymethylbilane synthase
  3. PBG-D
  4. Pre-uroporphyrinogen synthase
Gene Name HMBS
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
Specific Function Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps.
Pathways
  • Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther Disease
  • Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)
  • Porphyria Variegata (PV)
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Porphyrin Metabolism
  • protoporphyrin-IX biosynthesis
Reactions
Porphobilinogen + Water → Hydroxymethylbilane + Ammonia details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
response to zinc ion
cellular response to arsenic-containing substance
response to amino acid stimulus
heme biosynthetic process
protoporphyrinogen IX biosynthetic process
organ regeneration
cellular response to antibiotic
cellular response to amine stimulus
response to drug
astrocyte differentiation
cellular response to cytokine stimulus
cellular response to lead ion
peptidyl-pyrromethane cofactor linkage
response to carbohydrate stimulus
response to vitamin
response to estradiol stimulus
cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus
response to hypoxia
response to methylmercury
response to cobalt ion
Cellular Component
cytosol
condensed chromosome
nucleus
axon
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups
Molecular Function
amine binding
carboxylic acid binding
hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
uroporphyrinogen-III synthase activity
coenzyme binding
Process
metabolic process
macromolecule metabolic process
post-translational protein modification
protein-cofactor linkage
peptidyl-pyrromethane cofactor linkage
biosynthetic process
cellular biosynthetic process
heterocycle biosynthetic process
tetrapyrrole biosynthetic process
macromolecule modification
protein modification process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm (Probable)
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 11
Locus 11q23.3
SNPs HMBS
Gene Sequence
>1086 bp
ATGTCTGGTAACGGCAATGCGGCTGCAACGGCGGAAGAAAACAGCCCAAAGATGAGAGTG
ATTCGCGTGGGTACCCGCAAGAGCCAGCTTGCTCGCATACAGACGGACAGTGTGGTGGCA
ACATTGAAAGCCTCGTACCCTGGCCTGCAGTTTGAAATCATTGCTATGTCCACCACAGGG
GACAAGATTCTTGATACTGCACTCTCTAAGATTGGAGAGAAAAGCCTGTTTACCAAGGAG
CTTGAACATGCCCTGGAGAAGAATGAAGTGGACCTGGTTGTTCACTCCTTGAAGGACCTG
CCCACTGTGCTTCCTCCTGGCTTCACCATCGGAGCCATCTGCAAGCGGGAAAACCCTCAT
GATGCTGTTGTCTTTCACCCAAAATTTGTTGGGAAGACCCTAGAAACCCTGCCAGAGAAG
AGTGTGGTGGGAACCAGCTCCCTGCGAAGAGCAGCCCAGCTGCAGAGAAAGTTCCCGCAT
CTGGAGTTCAGGAGTATTCGGGGAAACCTCAACACCCGGCTTCGGAAGCTGGACGAGCAG
CAGGAGTTCAGTGCCATCATCCTGGCAACAGCTGGCCTGCAGCGCATGGGCTGGCACAAC
CGGGTGGGGCAGATCCTGCACCCTGAGGAATGCATGTATGCTGTGGGCCAGGGGGCCTTG
GGCGTGGAAGTGCGAGCCAAGGACCAGGACATCTTGGATCTGGTGGGTGTGCTGCACGAT
CCCGAGACTCTGCTTCGCTGCATCGCTGAAAGGGCCTTCCTGAGGCACCTGGAAGGAGGC
TGCAGTGTGCCAGTAGCCGTGCATACAGCTATGAAGGATGGGCAACTGTACCTGACTGGA
GGAGTCTGGAGTCTAGACGGCTCAGATAGCATACAAGAGACCATGCAGGCTACCATCCAT
GTCCCTGCCCAGCATGAAGATGGCCCTGAGGATGACCCACAGTTGGTAGGCATCACTGCT
CGTAACATTCCACGAGGGCCCCAGTTGGCTGCCCAGAACTTGGGCATCAGCCTGGCCAAC
TTGTTGCTGAGCAAAGGAGCCAAAAACATCCTGGATGTTGCACGGCAGCTTAACGATGCC
CATTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 361
Molecular Weight 39329.74
Theoretical pI 7.174
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Porphobilinogen deaminase
MSGNGNAAATAEENSPKMRVIRVGTRKSQLARIQTDSVVATLKASYPGLQFEIIAMSTTG
DKILDTALSKIGEKSLFTKELEHALEKNEVDLVVHSLKDLPTVLPPGFTIGAICKRENPH
DAVVFHPKFVGKTLETLPEKSVVGTSSLRRAAQLQRKFPHLEFRSIRGNLNTRLRKLDEQ
QEFSAIILATAGLQRMGWHNRVGQILHPEECMYAVGQGALGVEVRAKDQDILDLVGVLHD
PETLLRCIAERAFLRHLEGGCSVPVAVHTAMKDGQLYLTGGVWSLDGSDSIQETMQATIH
VPAQHEDGPEDDPQLVGITARNIPRGPQLAAQNLGISLANLLLSKGAKNILDVARQLNDA
H
GenBank ID Protein 158261573
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P08397
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name HEM3_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AK290275
GeneCard ID HMBS
GenAtlas ID HMBS
HGNC ID HGNC:4982
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
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  3. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  4. Raich N, Romeo PH, Dubart A, Beaupain D, Cohen-Solal M, Goossens M: Molecular cloning and complete primary sequence of human erythrocyte porphobilinogen deaminase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Aug 11;14(15):5955-68. [PubMed:2875434 ]
  5. Grandchamp B, De Verneuil H, Beaumont C, Chretien S, Walter O, Nordmann Y: Tissue-specific expression of porphobilinogen deaminase. Two isoenzymes from a single gene. Eur J Biochem. 1987 Jan 2;162(1):105-10. [PubMed:3816774 ]
  6. Yoo HW, Warner CA, Chen CH, Desnick RJ: Hydroxymethylbilane synthase: complete genomic sequence and amplifiable polymorphisms in the human gene. Genomics. 1993 Jan;15(1):21-9. [PubMed:7916736 ]
  7. Chretien S, Dubart A, Beaupain D, Raich N, Grandchamp B, Rosa J, Goossens M, Romeo PH: Alternative transcription and splicing of the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene result either in tissue-specific or in housekeeping expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan;85(1):6-10. [PubMed:3422427 ]
  8. Lannfelt L, Wetterberg L, Lilius L, Thunell S, Jornvall H, Pavlu B, Wielburski A, Gellerfors P: Porphobilinogen deaminase in human erythrocytes: purification of two forms with apparent molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1989 Nov;49(7):677-84. [PubMed:2609111 ]
  9. Gill R, Kolstoe SE, Mohammed F, Al D-Bass A, Mosely JE, Sarwar M, Cooper JB, Wood SP, Shoolingin-Jordan PM: Structure of human porphobilinogen deaminase at 2.8 A: the molecular basis of acute intermittent porphyria. Biochem J. 2009 Apr 28;420(1):17-25. doi: 10.1042/BJ20082077. [PubMed:19207107 ]
  10. Song G, Li Y, Cheng C, Zhao Y, Gao A, Zhang R, Joachimiak A, Shaw N, Liu ZJ: Structural insight into acute intermittent porphyria. FASEB J. 2009 Feb;23(2):396-404. doi: 10.1096/fj.08-115469. Epub 2008 Oct 20. [PubMed:18936296 ]
  11. Delfau MH, Picat C, de Rooij FW, Hamer K, Bogard M, Wilson JH, Deybach JC, Nordmann Y, Grandchamp B: Two different point G to A mutations in exon 10 of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene are responsible for acute intermittent porphyria. J Clin Invest. 1990 Nov;86(5):1511-6. [PubMed:2243128 ]
  12. Delfau MH, Picat C, De Rooij F, Voortman G, Deybach JC, Nordmann Y, Grandchamp B: Molecular heterogeneity of acute intermittent porphyria: identification of four additional mutations resulting in the CRIM-negative subtype of the disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Aug;49(2):421-8. [PubMed:1714233 ]
  13. Gu XF, de Rooij F, Voortman G, Te Velde K, Nordmann Y, Grandchamp B: High frequency of mutations in exon 10 of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in patients with a CRIM-positive subtype of acute intermittent porphyria. Am J Hum Genet. 1992 Sep;51(3):660-5. [PubMed:1496994 ]
  14. Mgone CS, Lanyon WG, Moore MR, Connor JM: Detection of seven point mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in patients with acute intermittent porphyria, by direct sequencing of in vitro amplified cDNA. Hum Genet. 1992 Sep-Oct;90(1-2):12-6. [PubMed:1427766 ]
  15. Kauppinen R, Peltonen L, Pihlaja H, Mustajoki P: CRIM-positive mutations of acute intermittent porphyria in Finland. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(5):392-6. [PubMed:1301948 ]
  16. Mgone CS, Lanyon WG, Moore MR, Louie GV, Connor JM: Detection of a high mutation frequency in exon 12 of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Hum Genet. 1993 Dec;92(6):619-22. [PubMed:8262523 ]
  17. Llewellyn DH, Whatley S, Elder GH: Acute intermittent porphyria caused by an arginine to histidine substitution (R26H) in the cofactor-binding cleft of porphobilinogen deaminase. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Aug;2(8):1315-6. [PubMed:8401516 ]
  18. Gu XF, de Rooij F, de Baar E, Bruyland M, Lissens W, Nordmann Y, Grandchamp B: Two novel mutations of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in acute intermittent porphyria. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Oct;2(10):1735-6. [PubMed:8268934 ]
  19. Gu XF, de Rooij F, Voortman G, Te Velde K, Deybach JC, Nordmann Y, Grandchamp B: Detection of eleven mutations causing acute intermittent porphyria using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Hum Genet. 1994 Jan;93(1):47-52. [PubMed:8270254 ]
  20. Lundin G, Wedell A, Thunell S, Anvret M: Two new mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene and a screening method using PCR amplification of specific alleles. Hum Genet. 1994 Jan;93(1):59-62. [PubMed:8270256 ]
  21. Mgone CS, Lanyon WG, Moore MR, Louie GV, Connor JM: Identification of five novel mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 May;3(5):809-11. [PubMed:8081367 ]
  22. Astrin KH, Desnick RJ: Molecular basis of acute intermittent porphyria: mutations and polymorphisms in the human hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Hum Mutat. 1994;4(4):243-52. [PubMed:7866402 ]
  23. Chen CH, Astrin KH, Lee G, Anderson KE, Desnick RJ: Acute intermittent porphyria: identification and expression of exonic mutations in the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. An initiation codon missense mutation in the housekeeping transcript causes "variant acute intermittent porphyria" with normal expression of the erythroid-specific enzyme. J Clin Invest. 1994 Nov;94(5):1927-37. [PubMed:7962538 ]
  24. Kauppinen R, Mustajoki S, Pihlaja H, Peltonen L, Mustajoki P: Acute intermittent porphyria in Finland: 19 mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Feb;4(2):215-22. [PubMed:7757070 ]
  25. Lundin G, Hashemi J, Floderus Y, Thunell S, Sagen E, Laegreid A, Wassif W, Peters T, Anvret M: Four mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. J Med Genet. 1995 Dec;32(12):979-81. [PubMed:8825929 ]
  26. Puy H, Deybach JC, Lamoril J, Robreau AM, Da Silva V, Gouya L, Grandchamp B, Nordmann Y: Molecular epidemiology and diagnosis of PBG deaminase gene defects in acute intermittent porphyria. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Jun;60(6):1373-83. [PubMed:9199558 ]
  27. Lundin G, Lee JS, Thunell S, Anvret M: Genetic investigation of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in Swedish acute intermittent porphyria families. Hum Genet. 1997 Jul;100(1):63-6. [PubMed:9225970 ]
  28. Mustajoki S, Pihlaja H, Ahola H, Petersen NE, Mustajoki P, Kauppinen R: Three splicing defects, an insertion, and two missense mutations responsible for acute intermittent porphyria. Hum Genet. 1998 May;102(5):541-8. [PubMed:9654202 ]
  29. Ong PM, Lanyon WG, Hift RJ, Halkett J, Cramp CE, Moore MR, Connor JM: Identification of two novel mutations in the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene in three patients from two unrelated families with acute intermittent porphyria. Hum Hered. 1998 Jan-Feb;48(1):24-9. [PubMed:9463797 ]
  30. De Siervi A, Rossetti MV, Parera VE, Astrin KH, Aizencang GI, Glass IA, Batlle AM, Desnick RJ: Identification and characterization of hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutations causing acute intermittent porphyria: evidence for an ancestral founder of the common G111R mutation. Am J Med Genet. 1999 Oct 8;86(4):366-75. [PubMed:10494093 ]
  31. Whatley SD, Woolf JR, Elder GH: Comparison of complementary and genomic DNA sequencing for the detection of mutations in the HMBS gene in British patients with acute intermittent porphyria: identification of 25 novel mutations. Hum Genet. 1999 Jun;104(6):505-10. [PubMed:10453740 ]
  32. De Siervi A, Mendez M, Parera VE, Varela L, Batlle AM, Rossetti MV: Acute intermittent porphyria: characterization of two novel mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene, one amino acid deletion (453-455delAGC) and one splicing aceptor site mutation (IVS8-1G>T). Hum Mutat. 1999 Oct;14(4):355. [PubMed:10502788 ]
  33. Gross U, Puy H, Doss M, Robreau AM, Nordmann Y, Doss MO, Deybach JC: New mutations of the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene in German patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Mol Cell Probes. 1999 Dec;13(6):443-7. [PubMed:10657149 ]
  34. Solis C, Lopez-Echaniz I, Sefarty-Graneda D, Astrin KH, Desnick RJ: Identification and expression of mutations in the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene causing acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). Mol Med. 1999 Oct;5(10):664-71. [PubMed:10602775 ]
  35. Ramdall RB, Cunha L, Astrin KH, Katz DR, Anderson KE, Glucksman M, Bottomley SS, Desnick RJ: Acute intermittent porphyria: novel missense mutations in the human hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Genet Med. 2000 Sep-Oct;2(5):290-5. [PubMed:11399210 ]
  36. Robreau-Fraolini AM, Puy H, Aquaron C, Bogard C, Traore M, Nordmann Y, Aquaron R, Deybach JC: Porphobilinogen deaminase gene in African and Afro-Caribbean ethnic groups: mutations causing acute intermittent porphyria and specific intragenic polymorphisms. Hum Genet. 2000 Aug;107(2):150-9. [PubMed:11030413 ]
  37. Schneider-Yin X, Bogard C, Rufenacht UB, Puy H, Nordmann Y, Minder EI, Deybach J: Identification of a prevalent nonsense mutation (W283X) and two novel mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene of Swiss patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Hum Hered. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):247-50. [PubMed:10782018 ]
  38. De Siervi A, Weiss Cadiz DE, Parera VE, del C Batlle AM, Rossetti MV: Identification and characterization of two novel mutations that produce acute intermittent porphyria: A 3-base deletion (841-843delGGA) and a missense mutation (T35M). Hum Mutat. 2000 Oct;16(4):373. [PubMed:11013452 ]
  39. Kauppinen R, von und zu Fraunberg M: Molecular and biochemical studies of acute intermittent porphyria in 196 patients and their families. Clin Chem. 2002 Nov;48(11):1891-900. [PubMed:12406973 ]
  40. Floderus Y, Shoolingin-Jordan PM, Harper P: Acute intermittent porphyria in Sweden. Molecular, functional and clinical consequences of some new mutations found in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. Clin Genet. 2002 Oct;62(4):288-97. [PubMed:12372055 ]
  41. Gregor A, Schneider-Yin X, Szlendak U, Wettstein A, Lipniacka A, Rufenacht UB, Minder EI: Molecular study of the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene (HMBS) among Polish patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Hum Mutat. 2002 Mar;19(3):310. [PubMed:11857754 ]
  42. Gouya L, Puy H, Robreau AM, Lyoumi S, Lamoril J, Da Silva V, Grandchamp B, Deybach JC: Modulation of penetrance by the wild-type allele in dominantly inherited erythropoietic protoporphyria and acute hepatic porphyrias. Hum Genet. 2004 Feb;114(3):256-62. Epub 2003 Dec 11. [PubMed:14669009 ]
  43. Hessels J, Voortman G, van der Wagen A, van der Elzen C, Scheffer H, Zuijderhoudt FM: Homozygous acute intermittent porphyria in a 7-year-old boy with massive excretions of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(1):19-27. [PubMed:14970743 ]
  44. Schneider-Yin X, Hergersberg M, Schuurmans MM, Gregor A, Minder EI: Mutation hotspots in the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene: recurrent mutations G111R and R173Q occurring at CpG motifs. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(5):625-31. [PubMed:15669678 ]